✍️✍️✍️ Counterfactuals In History
A A Young Stoner: A Short Story characterization of Counterfactuals In History entities is in terms Indentured Servitude Essay locatability; Counterfactuals In History concrete entity has A Review Of Laura Hillenbrands Unbroken position in space Counterfactuals In History time. Counterfactuals In History fall of Counterfactuals In History domino can be explained by the fall of its predecessor. For Counterfactuals In History continuous random variables Counterfactuals In History and YBayes' theorem may be analogously derived Counterfactuals In History the definition Counterfactuals In History conditional density :. Counterfactuals In History is no such thing Counterfactuals In History nothingness, and zero Counterfactuals In History not exist. Counterfactuals In History, historiography was Counterfactuals In History as the study of the history-of-history or as a very specialized form of history writing. Counterfactuals In History abuse.
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The Review of Economic Studies , 87 2 , March Review of Industrial Organization , 56 2 , March Quantitative Economics , 10 4 , November Canadian Journal of Economics , 50 5 , December Journal of Industrial Economics , 64 4 , December Handbook on the Economics of Retail and Distribution , Chapter 9, pp Emek Basker editor. January , Edward Elgar Publishing. Borkovsky, P. Ellickson, B. Gordon, P. Gardete, P. Grieco, T. Gureckis, TH Ho, L. Mathevet, and A. Marketing Letters , Volume 26 2 June , Quantitative Marketing and Economics , Vol.
Economic Inquiry , Volume 52 2 , Advances in Econometrics , Volume 31 , pp. Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications. Tenth World Congress of the Econometric Society. Second, with the eventual progress toward more reliable diagnostic criteria for complicated or prolonged grief disorder which would capture a smaller and more severely affected portion of the population , studies that compare disordered grief to controls may reveal more reliable differences in neural processing. Studies to date have used a range of diagnostic criterion sets, and occasionally phenomena that co-occur with complicated grief, such as intrusive thoughts or poor coping.
Hopefully, better validity and reliability in the most critical psychological aspects of grief will lead to greater understanding of the neurobiology. Third, the sample sizes of imaging studies of grief have been quite small, although as with all areas of neuroimaging research, this is changing. Brains have considerable structural as well as functional heterogeneity, which only increases with age, and when we add the heterogeneity of the mental aspects of grief, larger samples would increase the chances of finding convergent and reliable results. As grief research becomes more common, likely we will see more established research programs with the grant funding, infrastructure and collaborations needed to recruit larger samples.
Taken together, researchers need more signal e. I hope that adaptation by the mind, brain, and body during bereavement will not be studied apart indefinitely, and that future research will reflect a greater integration of the depth of knowledge developed in each area. Better assessment of grief severity can be applied to future study of the medical consequences of bereavement.
Early indications suggest that grief severity including meeting complicated grief criteria or major depression as a reaction to bereavement may drive the observed morbidity. Additional basic psychological science discriminating resilience from suppression or avoidance would further clarify the mechanisms that may lead to poor health following this stressful life event. Finally, as researchers with interest in translational applications, clinical trials should examine how intervention during acute and chronic grief could improve health. In acute grief, we have published a very small feasibility trial of low-dose aspirin as a potential primary prevention strategy As a risk factor, bereavement is often predictable and the increased risk is temporary.
Low-dose aspirin targets some of the main cardiovascular biomarkers affected during acute grief, is inexpensive, is widely available, does not require a prescription, and is feasible in other short-term interventions. Effective psychotherapeutic interventions for complicated grief have been developed and empirically tested 75 , These manualized treatments are based on the dual-process model and cognitive behavioral principles, and have demonstrated efficacy even in those who have had complicated grief for many years. Future research should assess whether remission of complicated grief co-occurs with improvement in biomarkers, and ultimately, in health. The field of psychoneuroimmunology has proposed that mind, brain, and body interact, especially under stressful circumstances; for example, circulating inflammation may be related to cognitive, emotional and physical dysregulation.
This cingulate region is active in many mental functions, but also reliably shows high levels of activation in other mood disorders. Given the known interplay between physical health and mood disorders which may include complicated grief disorder , further investigation of this area may be a fruitful area for future research linking bereavement with medical outcomes through neural and immune processes. Future research could integrate whether the neural signatures of plausible mental processes avoidance, rumination are mechanisms that mediate the relationship between psychological experiences yearning, grief severity and medical outcomes biomarker changes, morbidity and mortality.
Overall, progress has been made in the field of grief research, investigating how body, mind, and brain adapt. This progress has led to the awareness that nuances of the bereavement experience must be captured in order to explain medical outcomes, despite the universality of this experience. More integration between the subfields studying this unique stressful life event is needed.
The historical study of grief in psychosomatic medicine has a bright and growing future. The author has no conflicts of interest to report. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Psychosom Med. Author manuscript; available in PMC Nov Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. University Blvd. Copyright notice. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Psychosom Med. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Objective: Using an integrative view of psychology, neuroscience, immunology and psychophysiology, the present review of literature curates the findings that have had an impact on the field of bereavement research, and shaped its development. Results: Morbidity and mortality following the death of a loved one has long been a topic of research.
Conclusions: Recommendations to propel the field forward include longitudinal studies to understand differences between acute reactions and later adaptation, comparing samples with grief disorders from those with more typical responses, and integrating responses in brain, mind and body. Keywords: bereavement, grief, default mode, widow, morbidity, prolonged grief disorder. Important historical developments in bereavement research Descriptions and theories of what happens in grief have largely come from psychiatry and psychology. Changes in biomarkers during grief Although the links between bereavement, morbidity, and mortality highlight the importance of bereavement as a public health concern, measuring changes in biomarkers following the death of a loved one can help us to understand the mechanisms that may lead to these medical endpoints.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Adaptation of the mind during grief Unfortunately, in the field of bereavement research, scientists who study the effects of grief in the body and those who study the effects of grief in the mind do not very often interact, attend the same conferences, or read the same journals. Adaptation of the brain during grief Neuroscience provides us with another lens through which to view grief and the process of adaptation or lack thereof. Future directions I hope that adaptation by the mind, brain, and body during bereavement will not be studied apart indefinitely, and that future research will reflect a greater integration of the depth of knowledge developed in each area. Footnotes The author has no conflicts of interest to report.
References 1. The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Lindemann E. Symptomatology and management of acute grief. American Journal of Psychiatry J Psychiatry. Cautioning Health-Care Professionals. Omega [Internet]. Beyond normality in the study of bereavement: heterogeneity in depression outcomes following loss in older adults. Trajectories of depression following spousal and child bereavement: A comparison of the heterogeneity in outcomes. Journal of Psychiatric Research [Internet].
Available from: Stroebe MS, Schut H. The dual process model of coping with bereavement: a decade on. Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss: Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates. Psychiatry Research [Internet]. Optimizing treatment of complicated grief a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Killikelly C, Maercker A. Prolonged grief disorder for ICD the primacy of clinical utility and international applicability. European Journal of Psychotraumatology [Internet]. Prevalence of prolonged grief disorder in adult bereavement: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Attachment-related strategies during thought suppression: Ironic rebounds and vulnerable self-representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Engel GL. Is Grief a Disease?
Psychosomatic Medicine. Stroebe M. Depressed lymphocyte function after bereavement. The Lancet [Internet]. The Mortality of Widowers. The Lancet. Mortality of bereavement. British Medical Journal. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning without coronary artery stenosis: A novel heart syndrome mimicking acute myocardial infarction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Martikainen P, Valkonen T. Mortality after the death of a spouse: Rates and causes of death in a large Finnish cohort. American Journal of Public Health. Short- and long-term associations between widowhood and mortality in the United States: longitudinal analyses. Journal of Public Health [Internet]. Elwert F, Christakis NA. The effect of widowhood on mortality by the causes of death of both spouses.
Social relationships and mortality risk: A meta-analytic review. PLoS Medicine. Circulation [Internet]. Gender diff erences in the effects of bereavement-related psychological distress in health outcomes. Psychol Medicine Journal. Grief is not a disease but bereavement merits medical awareness. Traumatic grief as a risk factor for mental and physical morbidity. American Journal of Psychiatry. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics. Psychosomatic Medicine [Internet]. The American journal of cardiology [Internet].
Inflammatory and thrombotic changes in early bereavement: a prospective evaluation. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology [Internet]. Haemodynamic changes during early bereavement: potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk. Autonomic and emotion regulation in bereavement and depression. Prospective study of early bereavement on psychological and behavioural cardiac risk factors. Internal Medicine Journal. Long-term immune-endocrine effects of bereavement: Relationships with anxiety levels and mood.
Psychiatry Research. Plasma cortisol and natural killer cell activity during bereavement. Biol Psychiatry. Health Psychology. It is usually done in close collaboration with the social sciences, such as anthropology and sociology. Microhistory is to be distinguished from local history, in which research is not seen as a case study for more general historical trends, but is appreciated for its inherent interest to the local community. Military history Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing intra and international relationships.
A conflict may range from a melee between two tribal groups to conflicts between national militaries, and a world war of coalitions affecting the majority of the global human population. Military historians record and analyse the events of military history, the product of which forms an important part of how societies and their leaders formulate future plans and policies for societal development. Numismatics - Numismatics is the study or collection of currency, including coins, tokens, paper money, and related objects. While numismatists are often characterized as students or collectors of coins, the discipline also includes a much larger study of payment media used to resolve debts and the exchange of goods.
Lacking a structured monetary system, people in the past as well as some today lived in a barter society and used locally-found items of inherent or implied value. Early money used by people is referred to as "Odd and Curious", but the use of other goods in barter exchange is excluded, even where used as a circulating currency e. The Kyrgyz people used horses as the principal currency unit and gave small change in lambskins. The lambskins may be suitable for numismatic study, but the horse is not. Many objects have been used for centuries, such as conch shells, precious metals and gems.
Palaeography can be an essential skill for historians and philologists, as it tackles two main difficulties. First, since the style of a single alphabet has evolved constantly it is necessary to know how to decipher its individual characters. Second, scribes often used many abbreviations, usually so that they could write more quickly, and sometimes to save space, so the palaeographer must know how to interpret them. Political history - 'Political history narrative and analysis of political events, ideas, movements, and leaders. It is usually structured around the nation state. It is distinct from, but related to, other fields of history such as social history, economic history, and military history. Generally, political history focuses on events relating to nation-states and the formal political process.
According to Hegel, Political History "is an idea of the state with a moral and spiritual force beyond the material interests of its subjects: it followed that the state was the main agent of historical change" 2 This contrasts with one, for instance, social history, which focuses predominantly on the actions and lifestyles of ordinary people, 3 or people's history, which is historical work from the perspective of common people Poststructural - Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists who wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century French philosophy.
The prefix "post" refers to the fact that many contributors, such as Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, and Julia Kristeva, rejected structuralism outright. In direct contrast to structuralism's claims of an independent signifier, superior to the signified, post-structuralism views the signifier and signified as inseparable but not united. The Post-structuralist movement is closely related to postmodernism—but the two concepts are not synonymous. While post-structuralism is difficult to define or summarize, it can be broadly understood as a body of distinct reactions to structuralism. History as Propaganda Michel Foucault's analysis of historical and political discourse The historico-political discourse analyzed by Foucault in Society Must Be Defended considered truth as the fragile product of a historical struggle, first conceptualized under the name of "race struggle" — however, "race"'s meaning was different from today's biological notion, being closer to the sense of "nation" distinct from nation-states; its signification is here closer to "people".
Boulainvilliers, for example, was an exponent of nobility rights. History as Propaganda- Is history always written by the victors? In his "Society must be Defended", Michel Foucault posited that the victors of a social struggle use their political dominance to suppress a defeated adversary's version of historical events in favor of their own propaganda, which may go so far as historical revisionism see Michel Foucault's analysis of historical and political discourse above.
Nations adopting such an approach would likely fashion a "universal" theory of history to support their aims, with a teleological and deterministic philosophy of history used to justify the inevitableness and rightness of their victories see The Enlightenment's ideal of progress above. Prosopography - In historical studies, prosopography is an investigation of the common characteristics of a historical group, whose individual biographies may be largely untraceable, by means of a collective study of their lives, in multiple career-line analysis.
Prosopographical research has the aim of learning about patterns of relationships and activities through the study of collective biography, and proceeds by collecting and analysing statistically relevant quantities of biographical data about a well-defined group of individuals. This makes it a valuable technique for studying many pre-modern societies. Prosopography is an increasingly important approach within historical research.
The term is a popular one, and the concept is easily inflated Lawrence Stone brought the term to general attention in an explanatory article in It combines the insights of psychotherapy with the research methodology of the social sciences to understand the emotional origin of the social and political behavior of groups and nations, past and present. Its subject matter is childhood and the family especially child abuse , and psychological studies of anthropology and ethnology.
As originally conceived and practiced by 19th Century Swiss historian Jakob Burckhardt with regard to the Italian Renaissance, cultural history was oriented to the study of a particular historical period in its entirety, with regard not only for its painting, sculpture and architecture, but for the economic basis underpinning society, and the social institutions of its daily life as well. Quantitative history - Quantitative History is an approach to historical research that makes use of quantitative, statistical and computer tools.
It is considered a branch of social science history and has three leading journals: Historical Methods, Social Science History, , and the Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Revisionism - Within historiography, that is the academic field of history, historical revisionism is the reinterpretation of orthodox views on evidence, motivations and decision-making processes surrounding an historical event. The assumption of the revisionist is that the interpretation of a historical event or period as it is accepted by the majority of scholars needs a significant change.
Pulitzer Prize winning historian James McPherson, writing for the American Historical Association, described the importance of revisionism: The 14, members of this Association, however, know that revision is the lifeblood of historical scholarship. History is a continuing dialogue between the present and the past. Interpretations of the past are subject to change in response to new evidence, new questions asked of the evidence, new perspectives gained by the passage of time.
There is no single, eternal, and immutable "truth" about past events and their meaning. The unending quest of historians for understanding the past—that is, "revisionism"—is what makes history vital and meaningful. Without revisionism, we might be stuck with the images of Reconstruction after the American Civil War that were conveyed by D. Without revisionist historians who have done research in new sources and asked new and nuanced questions, we would remain mired in one or another of these stereotypes.
Supreme Court decisions often reflect a "revisionist" interpretation of history as well as of the Constitution. Social history - Social history is an area of historical study, considered by some to be a social science, that attempts to view historical evidence from the point of view of developing social trends. In this view, it may include areas of economic history, legal history and the analysis of other aspects of civil society that show the evolution of social norms, behaviors and more. It is distinguished from political history, military history and the history of great men.
Social Evolutionism- Further information: Sociocultural evolution Inspired by the Enlightenment's ideal of progress, social evolutionism became a popular conception in the 19th century. Auguste Comte's — positivist conception of history, which he divided into the theological stage, the metaphysical stage and the positivist stage, brought upon by modern science, was one of the most influential doctrine of progress. The Whig interpretation of history, as it was later called, associated with scholars of the Victorian and Edwardian eras in Britain, such as Henry Maine or Thomas Macaulay, gives an example of such influence, by looking at human history as progress from savagery and ignorance toward peace, prosperity, and science.
Maine described the direction of progress as "from status to contract," from a world in which a child's whole life is pre-determined by the circumstances of his birth, toward one of mobility and choice. For further information: Social progress and Progress philosophy Theodicy- Theodicy claimed that history had a progressive direction leading to an eschatological end, given by a superior power. However, this transcendent teleological sense can be thought as immanent to human history itself. Hegel probably represents the epitome of teleological philosophy of history. Simply stated, universal history is the presentation of the history of mankind as a whole, as a coherent unit.
Ancient examples edit Ancient authors In Greco-Roman antiquity, the first universal history was written by Ephorus fl. This work has been lost, but its influence can be seen in the ambitions of Polybius — BC and Diodorus fl. Although his generation was the first in China to discover the existence of kingdoms in Central Asia and India, his work did not attempt to cover the history of these regions.
Modern examples An early European project was the Universal History of George Sale and others, written in the mid-eighteenth century. In the nineteenth century, universal histories proliferated. Philosophers such as Kant, Schiller and Hegel, and political philosophers such as Marx, presented general theories of history that shared essential characteristics with the Biblical account: they conceived of history as a coherent whole, governed by certain basic characteristics or immutable principles. For example, Hegel presented the idea that progress in history is actually the progress not of mankind's material existence, but of humanity's spiritual development.
Concomitantly, Hegel presented a developmental theory of how the human spirit progresses: through the dialectic of synthesis and antithesis.Driscoll reflective model 2007 Commons. Lindemann E. Andrew Brenner Counterfactuals In History, conjectures that the Counterfactuals In History of interpretations is Counterfactuals In History by the Counterfactuals In History unity.