✎✎✎ Slingshot: What Is Limiting Economic Growth?

Wednesday, December 01, 2021 6:45:08 PM

Slingshot: What Is Limiting Economic Growth?



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Secrets of Economic Growth - Ricardo Hausmann

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But publicly available information makes it clear that the US Aegis-based systems in Eastern Europe, if equipped with cruise missiles, would indeed violate the INF. National Review. The Russians will inevitably claim that the United States violated the INF treaty first with Aegis Ashore missile defense sites, which use the Mk vertical launch system. The Mk is capable of launching the Tomahawk cruise missile—which could be argued is a violation of the treaty. Moving the MK41 to land would be a problem if we then fired a Tomahawk off it.

But it's not. Naval Institute. Retrieved 31 July The Moscow Times. Retrieved 26 October Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 20 November NBC News. Retrieved 5 December The Independent. Retrieved 8 August The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 August Retrieved 26 November The Hill. Deutsche Welle. The Washington Times. AP News. Retrieved 20 February The Daily Signal. Wilson Center. Retrieved 28 April Lowy Institute. The Interpreter. War on the rocks. Retrieved 16 August Davis E. Foreign Affairs. ISSN JSTOR Garthoff, Raymond L. Political Science Quarterly. Gassert, Philip Giles, Keir ; Monaghan, Andrew European Missile Defense and Russia.

Haass, Richard Legge, J. Michael RAND Corporation. Rhodes, Richard New York, NY: Vintage. Woolf, Amy F. Retrieved 9 May Nuclear weapons limitation treaties. History of nuclear weapons Timeline of nuclear weapons development Nuclear deterrence Nuclear arms race Nuclear disarmament Nuclear weapons delivery Nuclear weapon design Nuclear ethics Nuclear proliferation Nuclear weapons testing Nuclear warfare. Category:Arms control treaties. They can post text, photos and multimedia which are shared with any other users who have agreed to be their "friend" or, with different privacy settings , publicly. Users can also communicate directly with each other with Facebook Messenger , join common-interest groups, and receive notifications on the activities of their Facebook friends and pages they follow.

The subject of numerous controversies , Facebook has often been criticized over issues such as user privacy as with the Cambridge Analytica data scandal , political manipulation as with the U. Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in while attending Harvard University. The site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online face books of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person". Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. He uploaded all art images to a website, each of which was accompanied by a comments section, then shared the site with his classmates.

A " face book " is a student directory featuring photos and personal information. I think it's kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss , Tyler Winklevoss , and Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection. They claimed that he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. They later sued Zuckerberg, settling in [25] for 1. Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered.

In mid, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker —an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. A high-school version of the site launched in September In May , Facebook hired its first intern, Julie Zhuo. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements. In May , at the first f8 developers conference, Facebook announced the launch of the Facebook Developer Platform , providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features. By the second annual f8 developers conference on July 23, , the number of applications on the platform had grown to 33,, and the number of registered developers had exceeded , In October , Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in Dublin , Ireland.

The company announced million users in July A company representative called the milestone a "quiet revolution. The company had slightly surpassed eBay to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon. On November 15, , Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb. In March , Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The store was to be available on iPhones , Android devices, and for mobile web users.

Zuckerberg announced at the start of October that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, [79] including million mobile users, billion photo uploads and billion friend connections. On January 15, , Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search , which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site. On April 15, , Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles.

The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box. Following a campaign by advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdraw, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque, and Nationwide UK. The company initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions, or search what others are talking about on a topic.

The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei , known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, on December 8. As of [update] , Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted. On April 12, , Zuckerberg outlined his year vision, which rested on three main pillars: artificial intelligence , increased global connectivity, and virtual and augmented reality.

Users can create profiles, see updates from co-workers on their news feed, stream live videos and participate in secure group chats. Following the presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed. In May at F8 , the company announced it would offer its own dating service. All its shares are held by Facebook Hong.

On September 19, Facebook announced that, for news distribution outside the United States, it would work with U. They support Amazon 's Alexa intelligent personal assistant service. The devices include video chat function with Facebook Messenger. In August , a lawsuit was filed in Oakland, California claiming that Facebook created fake accounts in order to inflate its user data and appeal to advertisers in the process. In January , the year challenge was started [] asking users to post a photograph of themselves from 10 years ago and a more recent photo. Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy , Facebook announced in March that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines.

Kennedy Jr. The ads often linked to commercial products, such as natural remedies and books. In March , the perpetrator of the Christchurch mosque shootings in New Zealand used Facebook to stream live footage of the attack as it unfolded. Facebook took 29 minutes to detect the livestreamed video, which was eight minutes longer than it took police to arrest the gunman. About 1. Facebook has promised changes to its platform; spokesman Simon Dilner told Radio New Zealand that it could have done a better job. Several companies, including the ANZ and ASB banks, have stopped advertising on Facebook after the company was widely condemned by the public. Previously, Facebook had only blocked overtly supremacist content.

The older policy had been condemned by civil rights groups, who described these movements as functionally indistinct. On May 2, , at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private". On July 31, , Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a non-invasive, wearable device that lets people type by simply imagining themselves talking. This new application allows users to integrate their Instagram posts in their dating profile. Facebook News, which features selected stories from news organizations, was launched on October On November 17, , the banking data for 29, Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll worker's car.

The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names, the last four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and equity details. The company didn't realize the hard drives were missing until November Facebook confirmed that the drives contained employee information on November Employees weren't notified of the break-in until December 13, On August 14, , Facebook started integrating the direct messaging service of Instagram with its own Messenger for both iOS and Android devices. After the update, an update screen is said to pop up on Instagram's mobile app with the following message, "There's a New Way to Message on Instagram" with a list of additional features. As part of the update, the regular DM icon on the top right corner of Instagram will be replaced by the Facebook Messenger logo.

On September 15, , Facebook launched a climate science information centre to promote authoritative voices on climate change and provide access of "factual and up-to-date" information on climate science. After the US election, Facebook tweaked the news feed to quantify the trustworthiness and quality of a news source. With this Facebook reduce Election-related misinformation and hate speech without hurting the company's bottom line. Facebook was sued by the Federal Trade Commission as well as a coalition of several states for illegal monopolization and antitrust. In response to the proposed bill in the Australian Parliament for a News Media Bargaining Code , on February 17, , Facebook blocked Australian users from sharing or viewing news content on its platform, as well as pages of some government, community, union, charity, political, and emergency services.

On February 22 Facebook said it reached an agreement with the Australian government that would see news returning to Australian users in the coming days. As part of this agreement, Facebook and Google can avoid the News Media Bargaining Code adopted on February 25 if they "reach a commercial bargain with a news business outside the Code". Facebook has been accused of removing and shadow banning content that spoke either in favor of protesting Indian farmers or against Narendra Modi 's government. Although Facebook's rules state that it is "against the Facebook Community Standards to maintain more than one personal account," [] Facebook avoids enforcing this rule; even when multiple personal accounts are reported for attention, they pass the investigation, and even Facebook users with less than friend connections might see multiple instances among those that must represent either friends with multiple personal accounts or imposters claiming to be those people.

On June 29, , Facebook announced Bulletin , a platform for independent writers. According to Washington Post technology writer Will Oremus, the move was criticized by those who viewed it as an tactic intended by Facebook to force those competitors out of business. On October 4, , Facebook had its worst outage since The outage was global in scope, and took down all Facebook properties, including Instagram and WhatsApp , from approximately UTC to UTC, and affected roughly three billion users. The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red—green colorblind , a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi, Facebook compiles into a 1.

Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process has zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily. Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them to storage. The user interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe developed by Facebook.

Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out. Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods A hot article generates many impressions and news feed impressions that cause huge data skews. Batches are taken every 1. Data is then output in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more quickly. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive.

Facebook uses a CDN or 'edge network' under the domain fbcdn. On March 20, , Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Before public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language. On July 20, , Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a cleaner look.

Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content. In February , Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click. News Feed appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events and friends' birthdays. Users then gained control over what types of information are shared automatically with friends.

Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts and newly added friends. On February 23, , Facebook was granted a patent [] on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another user. The Photos application allows users to upload albums and photos. Users can " tag ", or label, friends in a photo. The friend receives a notification about the tag with a link to the photo. On June 7, , Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications. On May 13, , Facebook in association with major news portals launched "Instant Articles" to provide news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site.

The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours. On October 11, , Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D assets. In March and April , in response to Apple announcing changes to its iOS device's Identifier for Advertisers policy, which included requiring app developers to directly request to users the ability to track on an opt-in basis, Facebook purchased full-page newspaper advertisements attempting to convince users to allow tracking, highlighting the effects targeted ads have on small businesses.

The "like" button, stylized as a "thumbs up" icon, was first enabled on February 9, , [] and enables users to easily interact with status updates, comments, photos and videos, links shared by friends, and advertisements. Once clicked by a user, the designated content is more likely to appear in friends' News Feeds. Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. It began as Facebook Chat in , [] was revamped in [] and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August , while remaining part of the user page on browsers.

Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one [] and group [] voice [] and video calls. Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat.

A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot. Users can " Follow " content posted by other users without needing to friend them. Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile [] through privacy settings. Facebook's revenue depends on targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data from the site and the broader internet to inform the targeting. These facilities have changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments.

These facilities vary according to country, as some nations require the company to make data available and limit access to services , while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates additional privacy protections. The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who identified such problems. Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became available and continued through , before beginning to decline. Facebook passed million registered users in , [] and million in July In October Facebook's monthly active users passed one billion, [79] [] with million mobile users, billion photo uploads, and billion friend connections. In November , after skepticism about the accuracy of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the Facebook Messenger app, in the day period prior to the measurement.

This excluded the use of third-party services with Facebook integration, which was previously counted. From to , the percentage of the U. Historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook's decline or end, based on causes such as a declining user base; [] the legal difficulties of being a closed platform , inability to generate revenue, inability to offer user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a next generation replacement; [] or Facebook's role in Russian interference in the United States elections. Population pyramid of Facebook users by age As of [update] [].

The rest of the world has million users. Over the period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total. In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China , [] Iran , [] Vietnam , [] Pakistan , [] Syria , [] and North Korea. In May , the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country, though no ban has since occurred. The company's leadership knows how to make Facebook and Instagram safer, but won't make the necessary changes because they have put their astronomical profits before people.

That's why we have advocated for updated internet regulations for several years now. I have testified in Congress multiple times and asked them to update these regulations. I've written op-eds outlining the areas of regulation we think are most important related to elections, harmful content, privacy, and competition. Facebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Issues include Internet privacy , excessive retention of user information, [] its facial recognition software, DeepFace [] [] its addictive quality [] and its role in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts.

Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage, [] tax avoidance, [] real-name user requirement policies, [] censorship [] [] and its involvement in the United States PRISM surveillance program. Facebook is alleged to have harmful psychological effects on its users, including feelings of jealousy [] [] and stress, [] [] a lack of attention [] and social media addiction. Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal or offensive material. Specifics include copyright and intellectual property infringement, [] hate speech , [] [] incitement of rape [] and terrorism, [] [] fake news , [] [] [] and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents.

In late July , the company announced it was under antitrust investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it handles user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies. In , the US National Security Agency began taking publicly posted profile information from Facebook, among other social media services.

On November 29, , Facebook settled Federal Trade Commission charges that it deceived consumers by failing to keep privacy promises. On June 7, , Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public". The phone numbers of at least million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open online database in September After removing duplicates, the million records have been reduced to million. The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host.

It is thought the records were amassed using a tool that Facebook disabled in April after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. A Facebook spokeswoman said in a statement: "The dataset is old and appears to have information obtained before we made changes last year There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised. Facebook's privacy problems resulted in companies like Viber Media and Mozilla discontinuing advertising on Facebook's platforms. Facebook was accused of committing 'systemic' racial bias by EEOC based on the complaints of three rejected candidates and a current employee of the company.

The three rejected employees along with the Operational Manager at Facebook as of March accused the firm of discriminating against Black people. The EEOC has initiated an investigation into the case. A " shadow profile " refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their explicit permission. For example, the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information about an individual's internet browsing habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook user. For example, a Facebook user can link their email account to their Facebook to find friends on the site, allowing the company to collect the email addresses of users and non-users alike.

This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data collection. Additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the data they provide to the site, data from the user's "shadow profile" is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have access to this tool regardless. The company has also been unclear whether or not it is possible for a person to revoke Facebook's access to their "shadow profile. Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica , a political data analysis firm led by Alexander Nix. Facebook then issued a statement expressing alarm and suspended Cambridge Analytica.

Review of documents and interviews with former Facebook employees suggested that Cambridge Analytica still possessed the data. According to The Guardian both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story. After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". On March 23, , The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica 's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility.

You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university researcher that leaked Facebook data of millions of people in This was a breach of trust, and I'm sorry we didn't do more at the time. We're now taking steps to make sure this doesn't happen again. We've already stopped apps like this from getting so much information. Now we're limiting the data apps get when you sign in using Facebook. We're also investigating every single app that had access to large amounts of data before we fixed this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone affected. Finally, we'll remind you which apps you've given access to your information — so you can shut off the ones you don't want anymore.

On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet. Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama's campaign , which, according to Investor's Business Daily , "encouraged supporters to download an Obama Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends. On September 28, , Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users.

The data breach started in July and was discovered on September In March , Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users, however in April the company further stated that it was not just limited to Facebook but had also affected millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption which could be read by its employees. On December 19, , security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than million Facebook user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the web for anyone to access without a password or any other authentication.

In February , Facebook encountered a major security breach in which its official Twitter account was hacked by a Saudi Arabia -based group called " OurMine ". In April , The Guardian reported approximately half a billion users' data had been stolen including birthdates and phone numbers. Facebook alleged it was "old data" from a problem fixed in August despite the data's having been released a year and a half later only in ; it declined to speak with journalists, had apparently not notified regulators, called the problem "unfixable", and said it would not be advising users.

After acquiring Onavo in , Facebook used its Onavo Protect virtual private network VPN app to collect information on users' web traffic and app usage. This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors' performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire WhatsApp in Ars Technica reported in April that the Facebook Android app had been harvesting user data, including phone calls and text messages, since In January , Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities. Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his phone, even while the Facebook app was closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from affiliated businesses, even while his phone was completely off.

The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN. Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it more difficult for third-party apps to access the user's personal information. Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, [] and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate. Vaidhyanathan Antisocial Media [] claims that there's no evidence that Cambridge Analytica and similar companies have delivered anything of value to anyone who has paid them, but Facebook is "growing on every continent.

And it's undermining democracy everywhere. Facebook is doing the data analysis internally. Facebook is working directly with campaigns — many of which support authoritarian and nationalist candidates. You don't need Cambridge Analytica if you have Facebook. The impact of Facebook on democracy is corrosive. A campaign like Trump's can issue small, cheap advertisements via platforms like Facebook and Instagram that disappear after a day or get locked forever in Facebook's servers. That's bad for transparency. That's exactly what happened. That story has not echoed as far as the one about Cambridge Analytica and psychographics.

But it's the real story. Trump's victory in the United States presidential election. It has been criticised as a vector for ' fake news ', and has been accused of bearing responsibility for the conspiracy theory that the United States created ISIS , [] false anti- Rohingya posts being used by Myanmar 's military to fuel genocide and ethnic cleansing , [] [] enabling climate change denial [] [] and Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theorists, [] and anti-refugee attacks in Germany. In , Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute 's International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program.

Professor Ilya Somin reported that he had been the subject of death threats on Facebook in April from Cesar Sayoc , who threatened to kill Somin and his family and "feed the bodies to Florida alligators". Somin's Facebook friends reported the comments to Facebook, which did nothing except dispatch automated messages. Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. In July , it stated that it would "downrank" articles that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence. Specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook. In September , the Government of Thailand used the Computer Crime Act for the first time, to take action against Facebook and Twitter for ignoring requests to take down content and for not complying to the court orders.

In October , Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan urged Mark Zuckerberg , through a letter posted on government's Twitter account, to ban Islamophobic content on Facebook, warning that it encouraged extremism and violence. Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories. Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos.

In July , Zuckerberg said it was unclear whether Holocaust deniers on Facebook intended to deceive others, [] for which he apologized later the same day. As a dominant social-web service with massive outreach, Facebook have been used by identified or unindentified political operatives to affect public opinion. Some of these activities have been done in violation of the platform policies, creating "coordinated inauthentic behavior", support or attacks. These activities can be scripted or paid. Various such abusive campaign have been revealed in recent years, best known being the Russian interference in the USA's presidential election.

In , former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang , reported more than 25 political subversion operations and criticized the general slow reaction time, oversightless, laissez-faire attitude by Facebook. In , Facebook stated that during they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US , the Middle East, Russia and the UK. Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group , have broadly fallen into two categories; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize "mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook.

In July , Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the Oxford Internet Institute OII at Oxford University , said that "The number of countries where formally organised social media manipulation occurs has greatly increased, from 28 to 48 countries globally. The majority of growth comes from political parties who spread disinformation and junk news around election periods. In October , The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content — although they came from the United States instead of being associated with Russia.

In December , The Washington Post reported that "Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon Morgan, the chief executive of a top social media research firm" New Knowledge , "after reports that he and others engaged in an operation to spread disinformation" on Facebook and Twitter during the United States Senate special election in Alabama. In January , Facebook said it has removed Iran -linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in what it called "coordinated inauthentic behaviour". In May , Tel Aviv -based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for "coordinated inauthentic behavior" after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. On May 23, , Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has identified several fake accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitoring.

In a period of six months, October March , the social media website removed a total of 3. The number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2. In July , Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its services. The company removed more than 1, accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia , Thailand , Ukraine and Honduras. On October 30, , Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group , stating that the accounts were "deleted for not following our terms". The deletions came after WhatsApp sued the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1, devices with spyware.

In , Facebook helped found American Edge, an anti-regulation lobbying firm to fight anti-trust probes. The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. The authority also threatened the Facebook representative of facing criminal proceeding. In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the Thai government for suppression of freedom of expression and violation of human rights.

In February , Facebook removed the main page of the Myanmar military, after two protesters were shot and killed during the anti-coup protests. Facebook said that the page breached its guidelines that prohibit the incitement of violence. Citing the "exceptionally severe human rights abuses and the clear risk of future military-initiated violence in Myanmar", the tech giant also implemented the move on its subsidiary, Instagram. In , former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang , reported on more than 25 political subversion operations she uncovered while in Facebook, and the general laissez-faire by the private enterprise. In , Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for "engaging in operations to interfere with U.

Our analysis suggests these accounts and Pages were affiliated with one another and likely operated out of Russia. The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation , and provided all information about the Russian advertisements. Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner , who befriended Zuckerberg [] between and had Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter. In January , Facebook removed Pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-owned news agency Sputnik which had misrepresented themselves as independent news or general interest Pages.

In February , Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. The New York Times , when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications In , Facebook took down Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, Facebook accounts, and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military.

Collectively these were followed by over 10 million people. By then, more than , Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing. Ankhi Das, Facebook's policy director for India and South and Central Asia, apologized publicly in August for sharing a Facebook post that called Muslims in India a "degenerate community". She said she shared the post "to reflect my deep belief in celebrating feminism and civic participation".

Raja Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to violence. Singh had said on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot and had threatened to destroy mosques. On August 31, , the Delhi Assembly began investigating whether Facebook bore blame for the religious riots in the city, claiming it had found Facebook "prima facie guilty of a role in the violence". The Supreme Court reserved its judgment for the case. Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company.

Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that doesn't challenge him and that as a result, it's the U. The company has been subject to repeated litigation. On March 6, BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off key features of its messaging app. In British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy , sued Facebook over false claims. They claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its rules and that the special treatment was financially driven.

In October a Texan woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers. The Federal Trade Commission and a coalition of New York state and 47 other state and regional governments filed separate suits against Facebook on December 9, , seeking antitrust action based on its acquisitions of Instagram and WhatsUp among other companies, calling these practices as anticompetitive.

The suits also assert that in acquiring these products, they weakened their privacy measures for their users. The suits, besides other fines, seek to unwind the acquisitions from Facebook. In October , Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs , a PR firm that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling , then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica , hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation.

Definers claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and created other negative media, along with America Rising , that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart. On August 13, , it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain transcripts of the audio messages of users. A commentator in The Washington Post noted that Facebook constitutes a "massive depository of information that documents both our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a scope and immediacy of which earlier historians could only dream". Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are interested without forcing users to compete with each other.

By contrast, most goods are available to a limited number of users. Three areas add the most economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data. Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint. Facebook provides a development platform for many social gaming , communication, feedback, review, and other applications related to online activities. This platform spawned many businesses and added thousands of jobs to the global economy. Zynga Inc. An econometric analysis found that Facebook's app development platform added more than , jobs in the U.

Facebook was one of the first large-scale social networks. In The Facebook Effect , David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its " network effects ". Studies have associated social networks with positive [] and negative impacts [] [] [] [] [] on emotional health. Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy , often triggered by vacation and holiday photos.

Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, [] [] and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in time on Facebook. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness. Positive effects include signs of "virtual empathy" towards online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills. During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the Egyptian revolution.

According to Mashable , [ unreliable source? After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to resign. In a Bahraini uprising that started on February 14, , Facebook was utilized by the Bahraini regime and regime loyalists to identify, capture and prosecute citizens involved in the protests. A year-old woman named Ayat Al Qurmezi was identified as a protester using Facebook and imprisoned. The Facebook page's name "The Lions of Rojava" comes from a Kurdish saying which translates as "A lion is a lion, whether it's a female or a male", reflecting the organization's feminist ideology. In recent years, Facebook's News Feed algorithms have been identified as a cause of political polarization, for which it has been criticized.

Facebook first played a role in the American political process in January , shortly before the New Hampshire primary. Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By , politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message.

Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform. Facebook has used several initiatives to encourage its users to register to vote and vote. The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence elections. Facebook banned political ads to prevent the manipulation of voters in the US's November's election. However, industry experts suggested that there are several other ways for misinformation to reach voters on social media platforms and blocking political ads will not serve as a proven solution to the problem.

Ahead of the general elections in India, Facebook has removed pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian politics while trying to conceal their identity.

Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. In August , Facebook founded Internet. In , Zuckerberg claimed that "Internet. Facebook announced in that it will make an effort to stop disinformation about climate change. The company will expand its information hub on climate to 16 countries. Users in others countries will be directed to the site of the United Nations Environment Programme for information.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Fb. American online social media and social networking service. This article is about the social media website. For the type of directory, see Face book. This article may be affected by the following current event : Facebook outage. Information in this article may change rapidly as the event progresses. Initial news reports may be unreliable. The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. Please feel free to improve this article but note that updates without valid and reliable references will be removed or discuss changes on the talk page.

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Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. August Further information: Content Delivery Network. Further information: News Feed. Further information: Facebook like button. Main article: Facebook Messenger. Facebook popularity. Active users of Facebook increased from just a million in to 2. Further information: Censorship of Facebook. Further information: Criticism of Facebook.

Further information: Privacy concerns of Facebook. Further information: Facebook—Cambridge Analytica data scandal. See also: Facebook content oversight board. See also: State-sponsored Internet propaganda. See also: Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar. See also: Social media and suicide. For broader coverage of this topic, see Social media in politics. Further information: Social media and political communication in the United States and Social media in the U. Presidential campaign. Main article: Internet. Facebook Select your language. Facebook Investor Relations.

March 31, Retrieved March 31, Retrieved November 7, The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved March 23, San Francisco. In public it says no, but in court it says yes" — via The Guardian. Alexa Internet. Retrieved January 21, Retrieved December 17, May 24, Retrieved October 9, Arwa Mahdawi". The Guardian — via www. Fast Company. BBC News. July 13, False text posts are getting massive engagement on Facebook".

Retrieved November 18, Business Insider. Retrieved September 10, November 19, The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved June 24, Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved July 4, The Guardian. February 9, Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Axel Springer SE. The New York Times blog. Retrieved December 13, The Daily Telegraph. February 1, New York. Retrieved June 13, The Tufts Daily. Medford, MA. Retrieved November 30, The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, January 1, Retrieved March 5, The Age. January 20, Retrieved April 30, May 22, Archived from the original on December 29, Dayton Daily News. Retrieved March 9, Retrieved October 15, The Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 8, November 15, Facebook Newsroom. September 26, Retrieved February 4, Wall Street Journal.

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