🔥🔥🔥 Dizzy Dean Research Papers

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Dizzy Dean Research Papers

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She wanted to wait to talk, but as soon as the patient was out of the woods, she told him that she was pregnant with his baby. He was baffled and she was paged to the ER. Jackson told him he was the last to find out about Harriet, too, but it was the best thing that happened to him. Owen then found Teddy and got on an elevator with her and her patient. He questioned how she could have kept this from him for so long. She replied it hadn't been easy for her. Amelia then got on, too, and shared her plans to become Betty's official foster mother. She then picked up on the awkward vibe and asked what was going on. Before he could answer, the power died and they got stuck in between floors. The power got back on soon, but the elevator remained stuck.

Owen then told Amelia that Teddy was pregnant and she figured out the baby was his. Owen then realized Teddy had known for a while and got angry with her. The patient started crashing and they rushed to save him. While working on him, Teddy clarified she had planned to tell him the day she got here, but then she found out he had started a family already in record time. He questioned what she meant when she said nobody expected him to do anything. Teddy said the two of them getting together was off the table, so he could be with Amelia.

However, she was going to stay in Seattle so the baby could have a father and she could have her friend. Owen asked her how far along he was. She told him 16 weeks and assured him that the baby was fine. Amelia and Teddy started arguing until the elevator doors opened and they rushed the patient to an OR. Teddy and Owen saved the man. Afterward, she told Owen she did want him to be involved and he said he did, too. They agreed to figure it out together and hugged to celebrate that they were having a baby. Later, Owen went to Amelia and assured her nothing would change, but she knew him and his history with Teddy and gave him time to consider all of his options.

She didn't come home that night. Alone with Leo, Owen told him they would be fine. The situation with Amelia made him angry at Teddy, since her keeping the secret caused him to have to choose between them. She quipped that she had upended her whole life so he could be a father. Amelia overheard him venting his anger to Teddy. She told him they were arguing like a couple, but he insisted they were not. During a quick turnover in the OR, Owen was accidentally paralyzed. Levi saved him and got him to a bed in the ICU. Teddy found out and came to sit by his side. They had an honest conversation and she told him that while she had made mistakes, too, he was the one who came to Germany and then returned to Seattle to start a family.

She was thinking about moving back to Germany to her old job, but Owen had come to realize it was time for him to sacrifice something. He told her he would step down and give her his job. When he was cleared to go, he went looking for Amelia and told her truthfully that he wanted Teddy to stay here, but that he also loved his family with Amelia and that he couldn't do any of this without her. He told her he needed her and they went home together. On Christmas Eve, Owen and Teddy stood outside in the snow together as he invited her to spend Christmas with him, Amelia, and Leo, whom he was trying to create traditions with.

She declined as she had to cover his shift at the ER. He promised her they would establish their own traditions with their baby. Shortly after New Year's, Owen accompanied Teddy to an ultrasound and they found out they were having a daughter. Later, Owen went to rehab with Amelia to visit Betty, who revealed her real name was Britney and that she had run away from home and her parents, who didn't know about Leo. Furious over her lie and fearful of losing Leo, Owen wanted to reach out to Britney's parents, but Amelia told him it was Betty's choice and that it was all part of the disease that is addiction. He lashed out and disagreed, stating it sounded like an excuse to justify piss poor life choices.

He noticed he had offended Amelia and came around, saying he was worried over losing Leo. They hit a rough spot but he apologized with a bouquet of flowers on Valentine's Day, after which they attended the wedding of Natasha Deon and Garrett Boland. Not long after, Owen learned that Teddy had grown closer to Tom over the holidays. At the same time, Amelia learned that Betty had run away from rehab. He was surprised when Amelia came to tell him that Betty's parents had shown up after receiving a call from her from rehab. Amelia had explained the situation to them and they wanted to spend time with Leo, which didn't sit well with Owen. Confronted with the very real possibility of Leo being taken away, Owen dove into work and made sure a father didn't lose his son.

He then decided he wouldn't let John and Carol take Leo without a court order. Powerless, they left, and Owen yelled at Amelia for revealing to them her own struggle with addiction. Amelia said she wouldn't stand in the way of him fighting for Leo and pointed out he was just a foster parent and that he had wanted Leo's mother in his life. She stated he didn't even seem to care that Betty was missing. He stated that her name was Britney and that she was never much of a mother and left.

Despite his efforts, he had to concede to John and Carol taking their grandson home. He and Amelia said their goodbyes to Leo when they came to pick him up. Owen then quickly left for work, unable to deal with losing Leo. That day, the hospital was flooded with overdose victims, and Betty and her boyfriend were discovered among them. Owen jumped into action to save her when she deteriorated. Teddy diagnosed an aortic dissection while Owen intercepted Amelia and Betty's parents. They started arguing until Teddy came to inform them of her decision to operate on Betty herself.

Owen wanted to join her, but Bailey forbade him. Owen and Amelia sat in the waiting room with John and Carol. John told Owen about the last words he said to Britney before she had run off, which were "I can't even stand to look at you. While she took Amelia and Betty's parents to see her, Owen took care of Leo so they could focus on their daughter. He later joined them in Betty's ICU room as she woke up and was comforted by her parents. The Dickinsons and Owen and Amelia worked together to take care of Leo during Betty's recovery period. When she was better, they arranged for Betty and Leo to go home with John and Carol. After the Dickinsons thanked the two of them, they left. Owen and Amelia needed to get out of the house and attended Catherine's party, where Owen was confronted with Teddy and Tom's new romantic relationship.

He learned Tom was taking her on a surprise trip to Palm Springs, which upset Owen even more. He angrily stared at Tom the entire night and got in a fight with Amelia over his not accepting addiction as a disease. She hated how he didn't even check on how she feeling through all of this and told him it was hard to talk with him staring at Teddy the entire time. She walked away and Owen discovered Jackson and Richard weren't fond of Tom either. He went to find Amelia and clarified he was actually staring at Tom, whom he didn't want to be in his daughter's life.

Amelia thought it was about his feelings for Teddy. Owen denied that and wondered how many times he had to choose Amelia over Teddy before she would believe him. Amelia then said it was an impossible situation and that she had decided to step out of it because unlike for him, there was no baby forcing her to stay in it. As his anger amped up, Owen went to try to talk Teddy out of taking the trip, but she insisted on going and defended Tom, who joined them.

Owen then started yelling at him, disrupting the celebratory speech. He thought Tom was preying on a pregnant woman and he didn't want Tom in his daughter's life, stating he was not a father. Tom then punched Owen in the face for what he said. Tom put his hand in ice to hear the rest of the speech while Owen was kept away from him, but the party was cut short when the penthouse was evacuated due to smoke originating from the kitchen. He came home and found Amelia waiting for him with the Dickinsons. They had come to realize they were too old to raise Leo and they would have their hands full with Betty, who wanted to be a teenager and didn't want to raise Leo herself either.

They all agreed Owen and Amelia were Leo's true parents. He and Amelia then met with a lawyer to arrange the adoption. They hit a bump when the lawyer discovered he and Amelia were no longer living together and hadn't really discussed how they would split their time with Leo. She left them to discuss it before taking the case to a judge. They settled on a approach, but Amelia commented that it would probably change when Owen and Teddy's baby would be born. He repeated that he chose her over Teddy and wanted her in both his and Leo's life, but Amelia insisted that her decision hurt her less than being with him did. He blamed her for not being capable of loving and being loved. Amelia then decided to withdraw her name from the adoption.

While she wanted to be in Leo's life as much as she could, she acknowledged Leo had always been Owen's and that this was the best option now that the two of them were over. The judge approved the adoption and Owen signed the papers at home with Leo by his side. Owen struggled as a newly legal father without Amelia to help him out. At work, Owen worked on a trauma patient while Teddy worked on the man's pregnant wife. Owen offered to take over from Teddy given the woman's pregnancy, but Teddy declined.

However, he insisted to sit with her by the woman's bedside to make sure she wouldn't re-bleed. She made him rub her feet and they fell asleep. Eventually, the patient started bleeding again. Owen updated the husband and then joined her in the OR. They had to perform a hysterectomy to stop the bleeding, which meant delivering the preterm fetus, who passed away in his father's arms. Owen watched over Teddy as she checked on the devastated couple in post-op and held her as she broke down in his arms. Owen decided to come to Teddy's birthing class. He was surprised when he found out Tom in there, while Teddy herself hadn't shown up. She was experiencing a complication and only paged Owen, who kept it a secret from Tom and left the class.

Teddy was diagnosed with cervical insufficiency, which was treated with the Trendelenburg position. Carina asked him to make sure Teddy and the baby stayed calm, so he started talking to the baby in a baby voice, which freaked Teddy out. She expressed her fear of failing as a mother. Owen then got a gurney and lied down in Trendelenburg next to her to show her they were in this together. He told her all a parent can do is their best, admitting to several mistakes with Leo. Owen then told the baby that she wouldn't ever have to worry because her mother was so strong and fierce. Tom came in, having found out about the situation. Owen left to get coffee and Tom followed him.

He blamed Owen for not informing him and warned him to rethink his decision if he was planning to make a move for Teddy, whom he had hurt and abandoned over and over, since Tom was willing to fight for her, which would bring about a lot of unnecessary pain and drama for Teddy. Tom thought Teddy deserved someone for whom she was the first and only choice. Owen then backed out and stood outside briefly while Tom fed Teddy ice cream. While Leo started teething, Owen and Amelia kept their communication to a minimum.

Owen found out Tom and Teddy were looking for houses and offered Teddy to come to live with him, but she declined. Meredith secretly arranged an abdominal wall-penis-scrotum transplant on a veteran patient of Megan Hunt's, who flew over and surprised Owen. She learned that Teddy was pregnant but dismayed upon finding out that she and Owen were not together. She found out the whole story and called Owen a dum-dum for all the stupidity he had displayed.

When the transplant was canceled because the patient had lied about his support system, Owen talked about the losses he had endured in the Army himself and the shame he felt over how he reacted to them. Owen convinced Catherine that Caleb needed the surgery to move forward and they performed it successfully. Afterward, Megan told Owen to do for himself what he had done for Caleb. She thought PTSD and war made him think he wasn't entitled to joy, which she thought was the reason behind all the hard choices he had made for himself. She made him realize he wasn't well and that he needed to work on fixing himself.

He agreed to go back to therapy. She recommended a therapist and called him the day of his appointment to make sure he'd go. Owen was skeptical of NET and muscle testing, but he gave it a go since it had helped Megan. Owen talked about the Germany situation and the therapist suggested his bad behavior there wasn't on accident. He thought Owen was stuck in a pattern and that they needed to find the cause in order to stop it. The muscle testing narrowed the root of the problem down Owen's own distrust.

Further exploring revealed that the memory causing the pattern happened when he was He had won a science award at school and ran home with the certificate to show his mother, but before he could do so, she told him that his father had died. He then hid the certificate and felt so ashamed for being so proud and happy while his mother was so sad. The therapist told Owen that the memory caused him not to trust joy, fearing it would always be followed by bad news.

He put Owen in a specific position, allowing him to let go of that distrust. After weeping in his therapist's arms for finally letting himself experience joy again, Owen went home. Teddy checked in on him through a text and he told her about the session. Back at work, Owen learned that Amelia and Link had grown closer and that Teddy was still house hunting while Tom had started to plan the delivery, including a playlist. Amelia came in to clear Owen's patient's brain scans and he asked her about Link, but she told him it was none of his business.

He found her later and told her that therapy had made him realize that he was actually the one who was incapable of love. She thanked him for saying that and he invited her to spend more time with Leo, who was missing her. Afterward, Owen returned to his therapist and told him the first session had worked. He had realized that he loved Teddy and he wasn't feeling guilty about it anymore. He asked for more sessions so he would feel perfectly clear when he would tell Teddy. Owen went to the airport to help Frances Pinfield , a severely agoraphobic blood donor for Gus Carter , get off her plane and to the hospital. It took a FaceTime conversation with Gus's mother and Owen carrying her to the limo to do so.

While en route to the hospital, thick fog started to cover part of the city and the limo got in the middle of a pile-up on the freeway. Everyone made it out fine and Owen arranged an ambulance as a ride to the hospital. He helped out with the patient in the rig. The ambulance arrived together with the police car that transported a laboring Teddy and Amelia. He accompanied Teddy to the delivery room and apologized for hiding his fling with Carina, her OB, which she had found out about through Amelia.

Teddy forbade Owen from watching what was going on between her legs. With the head halfway out, Teddy needed to be distracted while waiting for the next push. Owen then told her he was in love with her and had always been. He hadn't understood he was allowed to be happy and he had been afraid of the way he felt around her because it felt so good, so he sabotaged it before life could do it for him.

He told her he wanted to spend the rest of his life proving to her that he was worthy of her love. She then gave the final push and their daughter was born. They simultaneously decided to name her Allison. Owen stayed by Teddy's side and they spent time together with their baby daughter. Amelia dropped by with Leo so he could meet his sister. Bailey then came in to fetch him and Amelia for trauma since she had to fire three attendings and Andrew was in jail. A week later, Teddy had returned to her hotel room. Owen found her and Allison both crying when he dropped by with supplies. He offered to come home with him, but she refused to start their life together in that house. He took Allison from her so she could go shower.

He tried to help out as much as he could, but in his eager efforts to help out, he bluntly offered to milk Teddy when she had clogged duct and heat pads weren't helping. She was offended and shut him out. She developed the habit to bring Allison to the hospital when she started panicking, so he went to look for her there. He told Amelia what had happened and she told him that giving birth was a beast to a woman's body, so he would need to be patient with Teddy.

After weeks of tiptoeing around Teddy, he visited her again in her hotel room and told her he had listed his house and had hired a realtor to find them a new one, already having hundreds of listings for them to go through. In the meanwhile, he had upgraded them to the suite. He also demanded that she'd let him help out as it was too much for her on her own. She got up and thanked him with a kiss. At work, Tom taunted Owen for his leaving Teddy in a hotel. Owen suggested he go back to his job in Baltimore, after which Tom revealed to him his new position at the Foundation, which made him Owen's boss.

While working to resuscitate Reid Kim , Owen accidentally shocked Tom in the crotch with the defibrillators. He quickly apologized to Tom while rushing Reid to the OR. Later, he stopped by Tom's room to properly apologize and found out that Tom had obtained an emergency restraining order against him for acute physical and emotional distress.

Owen objected that they worked together but Tom just asked him to leave. Tom used the restraining order to show his dominance over Owen by having kicked out of his own trauma room and the ER. He found Teddy struggling to change Allison on a bench outside and took over for her. Afterward, he suggested they take a tour of the hospital to humor Teddy. He showed her scans of his patients and she eagerly pitched a solution, making him realize how much she missed work.

They moved to the OR gallery to avoid Tom and he suggested he stay home with Allison for a while so she could go back to work. She refused because she didn't like admitting she was failing as a mother. He said he didn't like work having to avoid Tom and pointed out returning to work would make her happy again, which in turn would make her a better mother. She then happily accepted and left to get changed to start working. After dropping off Leo at daycare, Owen ran into Bailey in the ambulance and he informed her of his paternity leave because of Koracick's restraining order. An ambulance arrived with Yan Huang , who refused to be treated at Grey Sloan because of Meredith's recent negative article. Owen then jumped onto the rig to provide care while Yan was transported to Pac-North.

Upon arrival, he was confronted with an incompetent resident in the ER and he decided to deliver the patient straight to the OR. He handed the patient off to Richard and ran into Alex, who invited him for a tour after learning of his leave. Alex talked about the investors' big checks and his plans for the future. During the tour, they answered a woman's call for help from the ICU as another incompetent resident was failing to stop her husband's post-op hemorrhage. Owen and Alex jumped in and Owen learned just how bad the residents were. During surgery, Owen talked about his leaving Grey Sloan and Alex offered him the job of Head of Trauma, allowing him to structure the department as he saw fit.

Owen accepted the position because he liked the chaos, which reminded him of the Army. Afterward, he went to pick up Teddy and Leo at Grey Sloan, where they ran into Tom, who had come to realize they needed good doctors and had gotten rid of the restraining order so Owen could come back. Owen replied he had quit and taken another job at Pac-North, surprising both Tom and Teddy.

At work, several patients in the ICU started crashing while the discovery of a mass grave sent rumors of the place being haunted around the hospital. He and Alex set out to investigate and discovered that a faulty fridge in the ICU's own blood supply had caused the blood to hemolyze. In the evening, he met up with Teddy for the Halloween parade on the peds floor. Teddy told him she wouldn't be making costumes for their children like his mother had. He knew that and didn't expect her to, which is why he brought over the box to see if any of the costumes fit Leo or Allison.

He understood Teddy had assumed he had tried to shame her. She admitted it had inspired her and revealed she had dressed up their children as zombies, which he thought was inappropriate for kids. One day, Teddy dropped Owen off at work and he wanted to take a picture of Allison, but his phone storage was full. Amelia visited him, supposedly to return one of Leo's favorite toys, but she actually blurted out that she was pregnant with Link's baby. As she told him that she wanted Leo in the baby's life, paramedics brought in Cassidy Gardner, who had fallen down the stairs and was found by her young son. An ultrasound revealed that Cassidy was pregnant. She already knew and was disappointed that she was still pregnant after the fall.

She said she couldn't have another baby. Owen went to tell Amelia since Cassidy wouldn't elaborate. Together, they went in to tell her that the necessary splenectomy could endanger the fetus. Cassidy didn't want another child. Owen bluntly asked if she had thrown herself down those stairs to terminate the pregnancy. She swore she hadn't. She had tried to get help in a clinic with financial assistance but something always fell through so she made a tea she had found online, which made her dizzy and caused her to fall. She swore she would never do something to hurt herself or her son.

Amelia offered to get someone for the abortion so it could be performed during Owen's surgery but Owen interjected that he'd rather deal with the surgery first and the pregnancy afterward. Outside the room, Owen scolded Amelia for overstepping and shut her down when she tried to make her case, after which he dismissed her. Owen performed the surgery and found Amelia and OB nurse in Cassidy's room when he came for a post-op exam. He was mad at Amelia for going behind his back but she stated she was only providing the help that he wouldn't give Cassidy. She suspected it had something to do with her own pregnancy. Owen threw in her face that they got divorced over Amelia not wanting kids and now she was having kids with someone else.

She left. He chased her and apologized. She also apologized. She should have known that this was going to be a bigger conversation than she had anticipated. She told him that she really didn't want kids when they were married. Something changed in her and Betty and Leo were a big part of that. She wasn't ready before but she was now, and she had him to thank for that. She said they would always be family through Leo, which they both liked. He asked how they were going to handle this whole family thing. She admitted it was a complicated situation. He realized he had to go apologize to Cassidy for projecting his anger on her. Owen and Teddy showed up for Meredith's hearing before the medical commission while arguing about sleep training Allison.

Owen testified to Meredith's outstanding surgical skills. He specifically cited Megan's case, though his testimony was weakened when the prosecution brought up Bailey's post-op notes from Megan's first surgery, which detailed Owen's serious doubts about Meredith's approach at the time. Later, Owen let in the group of patients who had come to testify on Meredith's behalf. After the hearing was over, he congratulated Meredith when it was announced she got to keep her license. With Alex taking some personal time, Owen acted as interim Chief. He showed around Daphne Lopez , an emergency medicine attending who was looking for a job in Seattle. She was also interested in Seattle Pres but Owen impressed her throughout the day.

As she walked off, Richard commented on his trying to impress Daphne, warning that that was a slippery slope. Owen said he was happy together with Teddy. Richard asked if he had proposed yet. When Owen said he hadn't, Richard asked what he was waiting for. Owen and Richard came to Grey Sloan to help out after Meredith let them know a car had crashed into Joe's bar, injuring several of their residents. Owen worked with Tom and Jackson on Blake Simms , who had a facial fracture. Teddy asked him to cut Tom some slack. While Jackson and Owen were operating, Tom came in to demand hourly updates. After he was gone, Hannah Brody commented Teddy could do so much better than that guy. Jackson pointed out Teddy was with Owen. Hannah blamed her mistake on the way Tom talks to Teddy.

Jackson then asked Owen if he and Teddy had set a wedding date yet. Owen said he hadn't even proposed yet. After sending Hannah out to do an intake in the ER, Owen told Jackson that he was feeling a lot of pressure for the right proposal as it had to make up for the fact that he hadn't done it decades ago. Jackson pointed out wanting to be with her forever included the present. After surgery, Jackson and Owen updated Blake's grandmother, who informed him that Tom had paid for her to move to Seattle with Blake because he wanted Blake so badly. Tom came over and thanked Owen for catching the leak. They shook hands. Afterward, Owen took Teddy to an on-call room and got down on one knee with his mother's ring, which she had given him the day Allison was born.

He told her there was no perfect moment but he knew she was the perfect woman for him. She checked if he was proposing out of obligation, citing his pattern of feeling trapped by obligations and his fear of disappointing others. He told her he was starting a new pattern of loving her and their family. He then asked her to marry him. She accepted. They headed out and announced their engagement to their colleagues, with Tom watching the happy couple from a distance. Owen showed up at Grey Sloan to take Teddy to a surprise lunch to talk wedding plans.

She confessed she had lost his mother's ring. They set out to find it, even checking the pipes in the sink. They got a call that Leo was vomiting in daycare and found out on his scan that he had swallowed the ring. As they waited for him to pass it, Teddy expressed guilt over having lost it. He suggested she wear a necklace with letters for each member of the family instead of the ring and keep that hidden away for special occasions.

The next Monday, Owen arrived at work late and was told by Richard that Catherine had purchased Pac-North to shut it down after a fight with him. She had all personnel go to Grey Sloan to interview with Tom to keep their jobs. Tom kept Owen waiting. When Tom was done with the attendings and called in a second-year resident, Owen protested but Tom assured him he would be out in time for his wedding. At the end of the day, Tom did an elaborate phone call with Catherine while Owen was the only one still waiting. Amelia sat with Owen and reminded him that he stole Tom's girlfriend. She pointed out Owen got everything, a family included, leaving Tom lonely and in pain, so he should let Tom have this.

Owen was in awe of her empathy. Later, he teamed up with the board members and they presented Tom with an ultimatum, which included hiring Owen and Richard back, threatening to quit if he didn't comply with their wishes. Tom was forced to agree. While Owen and Jo were operating together, she asked him what he would do if he were to find out Amelia's baby was his. She stressed it was just hypothetical but Alex ignoring her texts was making her consider worst case scenarios. Owen replied that it took him a long time to get to this place with Teddy and he wouldn't let anything screw that up. Later, Owen ended up on an elevator with Link and asked him how he was holding up with Amelia half-way through the pregnancy.

He had noticed Amelia had missed some days at work. Holding back that the baby actually might be his, Link simply stated things were complicated but that the baby was healthy. Owen recalled feeling useless when Teddy was pregnant. He advised Link to listen and sympathize and keep trying to help even if he wasn't sure how. When a blizzard hit Seattle, Owen and Teddy left their kids with his mother so they could both help out in the busy ER. He managed to help save a pregnant woman and her baby. Unaware of Teddy having found out that Amelia's baby might be his, he sent her a text asking to go sledding as he headed home. Owen eagerly started planning the wedding while Teddy's recent discovery left her less enthusiastic. Blissfully unaware, he forwarded Teddy a list of venues that his mother had compiled but Teddy suggested just getting a wedding planner, which he didn't want to.

He asked her to look at the list, which might help her figure out what she wanted. Later, he ran into her and asked what was going on when she ignore him. She blurted out Amelia's baby could be his and asked what that meant for him. He didn't answer, which upset her. Owen took some time process the news. He made Teddy dinner and told her he had just been shocked by the news. He assured her she was not a replacement for anyone. He added that whatever happened, his answer would always be that he loved her and that they would figure out. A few days later, Amelia found Owen and Teddy in a lounge and announced to them that Link was in fact the father of her baby.

Owen was happy to hear that as they could all move forward now. Owen took part in Meredith's pro bono surgery day. He turned down Jackson's invitation to come to the game with him. As he scrubbed in with Jo, he wanted to say he was sorry about Alex having left her. He invited her to come over if she ever felt like she needed company. At the end of the day, Owen found Teddy crying on a bench outside. He comforted her and asked what was going on. Instead of telling about her having slept with Tom, she told him about a rough case. After Richard had a public meltdown, Teddy had a busy day having taken over Maggie's cases, causing her to forget about her and Owen's appointment to try out wedding cakes.

As Owen and Link operated together, Link admitted he was nervous about becoming a dad. Owen truthfully told him that parenthood was scary and that those worries wouldn't go away. At the end of the day, Owen took Teddy into a supply closet, where they started to make out. She told him she wanted to get married that weekend. The morning of the wedding, Owen got into an argument with Tom as he had ignored his request for time off.

Tom had only seen the subject line and had indeed ignored it as he thought the wedding was still months away, so he didn't think it was urgent. Owen then informed him the wedding was happening tonight, surprising Tom, who approved the time off. Owen headed into surgery with Maggie, where they received the news about Richard's cobalt poisoning. As the surgery neared its end, Owen received a voice mail from Teddy. He had Levi play it on speaker.

It was Teddy moaning. Owen brushed it off as a wedding present meant for him. However, after surgery, he retreated to a supply closet and listened to the entire message, which revealed that Teddy was having sex with him. He heard how she told Tom that this was goodbye sex and that she was still marrying Owen. However, Owen called his mother and claimed he got pulled into an emergency surgery, calling off the wedding.

He left Teddy in the dark, leaving her to find out from his mother after having gotten all dressed up. Owen was changed profoundly by his experiences in Iraq. She thought he looked hard. Owen's treatment of his patients was flawed due to the fact he was used to treating patients in a war zone, but not a civilian hospital. Derek and Mark originally planned to reprimand him for his subpar treatment, but when Owen openly acknowledged his shortcomings and asked Derek and Mark for feedback so he could improve as a civilian doctor, they abandoned their plan and opted instead to teach Owen so he could improve as a civilian doctor.

Owen managed to impress Cristina as soon as they met, having performed an emergency tracheotomy in the field with a pen, and later closing up the gash in his leg with a staple gun without any kind of anesthesia. Later the same night, Owen found Cristina lying outside the hospital, having been impaled through the abdomen by a falling icicle. He carried her inside and treated her, eventually removing the icicle, and the two bonded. After Owen had taken care of Cristina, Dr. Webber offered him a job, but Owen turned down the offer as he was expected to return to Iraq. He left the hospital that night, but not before surprising Cristina with a passionate kiss that left her completely taken aback.

Owen returned to Seattle two months later, having been honorably discharged from the army, and took a job as the new Head of Trauma Surgery at Seattle Grace. Cristina first avoided him, but after he had forgotten her name, calling her "Christine", she confronted him. Owen then told her about his platoon's demise and explained that while he remembered her name, that belonged to the past, and he was now living in the present. Owen then kept his distance to Cristina and tried to act professionally towards her, but couldn't hide his jealousy as Mark Sloan was constantly trying to hit on her, or his anger when he heard Sloan call her "bad, cheap wine.

When Owen questioned Cristina's motives for doing surgery, she opened up to him and told him the story of her father's death, which encouraged Owen to start moving closer. However, after a patient who became special to Owen died, he found himself arguing with her outside Joe's and then kissing her passionately, almost violently. This caused the two to avoid each other again until Owen showed up outside her house on the doorstep and told her that he thought she was beautiful. A little later, Cristina was upset for not getting the solo surgery, so Owen took her to the vent in the boiler room of the hospital, which cheered her up and the two kissed.

As Owen's moods continued to swing, Cristina snapped at him and told him to stop his hot and cold act. Owen responded by asking her out, but in the evening he was so nervous that he went to get a drink, ultimately showing up on her doorstep hours late and drunk. Cristina was angry at first, but after Owen, who was standing in her shower fully clothed and shoes on, told her about his best and worst surgery ever, she softened and went into the shower with him.

Owen then passed out and woke up the next morning, naked in Cristina's bed. At the hospital, he apologized to Cristina, telling her he normally doesn't pass out naked in other people's beds, but she plays it off and leaves. Later that day, he confronts her, asking her to give him another chance, which she did. This caused Owen to have a panic attack and Cristina calmed him down, which resulted in Owen falling asleep on top of her in an on-call room and Cristina smiling happily as she held him in her arms. Though Cristina was wary at first after learning of Beth's identity, she and Owen moved on and he soon confessed that he wanted to be around her for the rest of his life.

Cristina and Owen started spending nights together - though they still hadn't had sex - but were soon confronted by new problems: Owen's PTSD from his time in Iraq started to manifest itself as violent nightmares and hypnagogic hallucinations. Ultimately, one night Owen fell asleep next to Cristina in her bed, and the spinning blades of the ceiling fan above the bed reminded him of helicopter blades, which caused him to have a hallucination and strangle Cristina in the middle of a nightmare. Cristina was rescued by Callie, who was alarmed by the noise coming from the bedroom, and Owen woke up, having no idea what was going on. He then broke down crying and apologized profusely, and Cristina - despite Meredith and Callie's resistance - forgave him, saying his PTSD is a war wound and not his fault.

Soon after this, they made love for the first time in an on-call room, but Cristina realized that she's afraid to fall asleep in his arms, and broke up with him. After this, Owen started to see Dr. Wyatt, who helped him express and name his emotions and recognize the triggers to his PTSD such as the blades of the ceiling fan. As Owen was further torn apart by his feelings for Cristina which he couldn't express because he thought it would be cruel to do so, Dr. Wyatt taught him to use three-word sentences as substitutes to the three words he wanted to say the most I love you.

As Owen continued to avoid her and only spoke to her with brief three-word sentences, Cristina became more and more confused and annoyed. When she finally confronted him in front of the hospital, he gave her a list of the sentences he used and explained what the speaking in three-word sentences meant and told her that he was trying to make things right by letting her go. Cristina then told him to "take care now", one of the three-word sentences meaning "I love you" he used for her multiple times, and left. As his therapy progressed, Owen started to move closer to Cristina, but she seemed to withdraw, asking him about finally going to visit his mother and telling her that he was back from Iraq. This caused Owen to ponder things and he came to the conclusion that at heart, his problems were caused by his unfinished business in Iraq.

He then told Cristina that he was returning to the army, but she gave no support to the idea, later telling him: "I don't want you to die. After seeing his mother, Owen was able to sleep without nightmares, and with the violent dreams now gone, he and Cristina decided to get back together. Later, Cristina was missing a cardio attending to teach her, so Owen brought over his fellow army surgeon, Dr. Teddy Altman , as a gift for Cristina. Teddy began to mentor Cristina, and, after a rough start, the two got along well. As it turned out, however, Teddy's presence caused a lot of trouble for Cristina and Owen, as she and Owen had had feelings for each other in the army without the other knowing.

After this matter was revealed, Cristina was willing to stand aside, but Owen assured her that he only wanted her. This caused Teddy to think about leaving the hospital, and Cristina, whose workaholic nature had been awoken by the motivation of working with Teddy, offered her an exchange in a panic: if Teddy stayed, she could have Owen. Teddy then told Owen about the offer and he confronted Cristina, telling her that their relationship matters and she doesn't get to toss him aside like that. Cristina, however, remained uncertain and eventually broke up with him, telling him that until he had made his choice, the two of them had no business together. The triangle between Owen, Cristina, and Teddy wasn't settled until the hospital was invaded by the murderous gunman Gary Clark.

Owen and Teddy made it out of the hospital with a patient, but after realizing that Cristina was still inside, Owen made his decision and ran back to the hospital to find her. He then found Cristina in an OR where she was operating on Derek, who had been shot earlier, with Jackson, Meredith, and April - and with Gary Clark holding his gun against her head, ordering her to stop operating. Owen then tried to distract the gunman from Cristina, even yelling at him as he was about to shoot her: "That is the woman that I love. You shoot her, you touch her, and I will kill you!

As the barrel of the gun moved to Meredith, Owen jumped towards Clark, forcing the shooter to shoot him instead of Meredith. After the gunman had gone, Cristina, not knowing the extent of his injuries, urged Meredith to save Owen. Luckily, it turned out the bullet had only pierced his shoulder, and in the wake of the disaster, Owen and Cristina got back together. Not long after, they got married in front of all their friends in a ceremony held at Meredith's and moved in together, purchasing an old firehouse that they decorated. Cristina later found out that she was pregnant with their child. Owen was thrilled, but Cristina, not wanting to become a mother, told him that she was going to have an abortion.

Owen tried unsuccessfully to talk her out of it and ultimately kicked her out of their home for failing to give him a voice in the matter. However, Cristina found herself unable to go through with the abortion without Owen's support, which alarmed Meredith, who, after telling him what sort of miserable future would await both Cristina and the child if she kept it, convinced Owen to let Cristina have the abortion. Owen held Cristina's hand during the procedure, but the moment seemed bittersweet and involuntary. It soon became clear that Owen was not okay with it. He and Cristina grew apart, he became more and more distant and silent, until the situation finally exploded during Zola's birthday party.

Owen and Cristina got into a huge argument in front of all of their friends, which ended with Owen accusing Cristina of killing their baby. After this, the situation only grew worse, and during a session with a marriage counselor, it became clear that they both failed to understand each other's point of view on the baby issue. Owen's discomfort and anxiety eventually led him to get drunk and having a one night stand with a patient's friend. He confessed his infidelity to Cristina, who had earlier suspected him of having an affair with nurse Emily Kovach, which completely devastated her.

Owen moved out of the firehouse and Cristina started to plan to move to Minnesota and accept the fellowship offered at Mayo Clinic. However, before leaving, she slept with Owen one last time, forgiving his infidelity. After Cristina and the others had been rescued from the forest in the wake of the plane crash, Owen promised to take care of Cristina, who was in a psychosis. He took her to the firehouse and managed to get her to speak. After she had fully recovered, she left for Minnesota to pursue her fellowship, while Owen stayed back in Seattle to continue his role as Chief of Surgery. After Cristina's mentor, Dr.

Thomas died, she returned to Seattle and tried to make efforts to reconcile with Owen. Due to a lawsuit against the plane company, Owen asked Cristina for a divorce, which would help the surgeons with their trial. Cristina then told Owen she wanted to try again and he agreed, but they still went through with the divorce for the sake of the lawsuit. Their newfound happiness was short-lived, however, as the arrival of year-old Ethan Dawson , with whom Owen bonded, made it very clear that Owen still wanted children. Cristina then realized that she would never be able to give Owen what he desires, so she left him during the superstorm that hit Seattle.

After the storm, Owen and Cristina faced the tough challenge of staying apart, and even though they ended up having sex - more than once - Cristina was determined to stick to her decision. Upon realizing that they could never detach themselves from one another as long as they let things stay the way they were, Cristina suggested that they'd start seeing other people in order to let go of each other, and Owen reluctantly agreed. Emma Marling , with whom he started flirting. Cristina, witnessing the situation, left the scene with a downhearted expression on her face, leaving Owen with the other woman.

Emma and Owen's relationship becomes quite serious and they even consider moving in together. However, after another emotional encounter with Cristina, Owen breaks up with Emma realizing that he wants to have a future with a woman who shares an equal passion for surgery as she does for children. After he breaks up with Emma, Cristina tries to help him find someone else. Cristina and Owen continued a deep friendship with each other until Cristina left for Switzerland.

Following Cristina's departure, Owen focused on his work and was skeptical about getting back to the dating game, despite him and Callie constantly encouraging each other to do so. However, he soon began to bond with Amelia, of whom he felt protective after a distraught patient revealed her past drug-addiction to the entire hospital, upsetting and humiliating her.

When Jackson and April's baby died, he held her hand as she opened up to him about her own deceased baby, and the two developed feelings for each other. Having been out of the dating game for so long, Owen was hesitant about making a move on her. He was constantly cautious and nervous around her, stammering his way through discussions with her. It wasn't until Amelia - just as helpless as him - came to visit him with a bottle of water that he finally took action and kissed her. A little later, after some failed attempts, they slept together for the first time. Problems soon arose, however, as Amelia began to fear that mixing professional and personal lives together would eventually result in a disaster.

After a risky procedure to which Owen had given his consent went wrong, Amelia freaked out, believing that he only sided with her because of his personal feelings, and ended the relationship. The two then spent the following year apart, due to Owen going on another tour in Iraq after Derek's death. He returned to find Amelia, to whom he had had to break the news of her brother's demise a year before, completely shut down, refusing to deal with her grief.

Upon learning that she was on the verge of relapsing again, he helped her open up and deal with her emotions. The two continued to grow very close, to the point where Amelia decided to propose to Owen, telling him that despite the fact that marriage may be too soon, she was sure that she wanted to spend the rest of her life with him. Owen and Amelia's wedding bliss didn't last for long as they realized they had a difference in opinion about starting a family. Amelia felt that Owen was pressuring her to start a family, which she wasn't ready for. Their marital problems got so bad that Amelia didn't come home for weeks and avoided Owen at the hospital.

After months of their marriage being on the rocks, Owen had enough and went to ask for a divorce from Amelia. Just as he was about to do so, he discovered that she had a brain tumor, which likely affected her judgment about their hasty marriage. Once the tumor was removed, Owen and Amelia amicably decided to get a divorce, as they didn't know which part of their relationship was not affected by her tumor, which had been growing for approximately ten years. After getting divorced, Owen spent some time away from Amelia and decided to foster a baby named Leo.

However, he soon realized he was in over his head and sought help from Amelia, who later moved in to help him and also mentor Leo's birth mother, Betty, who was addicted to drugs. Owen and Amelia bonded over their new family. Eventually, Amelia told Owen she still had feelings for him, and they got back together. Their relationship seemed to be back on track until Teddy returned to Seattle and revealed that she was pregnant with Owen's baby. Amelia gave Owen time to consider his options, and he chose Amelia. However, after Betty and Leo went back with Betty's parents, Owen and Amelia started fighting again, leading to another breakup. Owen and Teddy met while they both were army surgeons. Both developed hidden feelings for one another.

Owen brought her to Seattle Grace-Mercy West as a present for Cristina , claiming her to be the "cardio goddess", and Teddy later works out that Owen brought her as a present for his girlfriend, appearing more surprised by the fact Cristina was his girlfriend. Upon finding out, Owen became conflicted and almost kissed Teddy in a closet, but realized that he loved Cristina. The two remained good friends even after Teddy left Seattle to work in Germany.

After a fight with Amelia, Owen kissed Teddy, but she backed away, not wanting to ruin their friendship. She then returned to Germany. After Owen and Amelia's marriage ended, they continued sleeping together. After one hook-up, Amelia told Owen to seek out Teddy, claiming that he was still thinking about her. Owen did what she told him to, arriving at Teddy's doorstep in Germany and declaring his love for her.

After spending the day together, however, Owen ended up slipping that it was Amelia who told him to come. Upon hearing this, Teddy was angry and hurt, claiming that he had once again fooled her into thinking that they could actually be together. The two got into a fight that ended with Teddy kicking him out, refusing to speak to him anymore. Right before Teddy went into labor, she realized she loved Owen, while Owen realized he loved Teddy after several sessions of therapy. He told her he loved her just as she gave birth to their daughter, Allison.

Later on, during a surgery, Jackson asks Owen if he's set a date yet, which he responds to by saying he and Teddy aren't engaged. Jackson is surprised by this, and Owen says he wants to marry her, but he's afraid the proposal won't be big enough to make up for the fact that he didn't do it years, even decades ago. Archaeological excavations have found Lenape burials that included identifiably ethnic Iroquois remains interred along with those of Lenape.

In addition, both tribes practiced adopting young captives from warfare into their tribes and assimilating them as full tribal members. Early European observers may have misinterpreted matrilineal Lenape cultural practices. For example, a man's maternal uncle his mother's brother , and not his father, was usually considered to be his closest male relative, since his uncle belonged to his mother's clan and his father belonged to a different one.

The maternal uncle played a more prominent role in the lives of his sister's children than did the father—for example likely being the one responsible for educating a young man in weapons craft, martial arts, hunting, and other life skills. Lenape practiced companion planting , in which women cultivated many varieties of the " Three Sisters ": maize, beans, and squash. Men also practiced hunting and the harvesting of seafood. By the time of the arrival of Europeans, the Lenape were cultivating fields of vegetation through the slash and burn technique.

According to Dutch settler Isaac de Rasieres , who observed the Lenape in , the Lenape's primary crop was maize , which they planted in March. They quickly adopted European metal tools for this task. The men limited their agricultural labor to clearing the field and breaking the soil. They primarily hunted and fished during the rest of the year: from September to January and from June to July, they mainly hunted deer, but from the months of January to the spring planting in May, they hunted anything from bears and beavers to raccoons and foxes.

They also harvested vast quantities of fish and shellfish from the bays of the area, [29] and, in southern New Jersey, harvested clams year-round. The success of these methods allowed the tribe to maintain a larger population than other, nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples in North America at the time, could support. Scholars have estimated that at the time of European settlement, around much of the current New York City area alone, there may have been about 15, Lenape alone in approximately 80 settlement sites. European settlers and traders from the 17th-century colonies of New Netherland and New Sweden traded with the Lenape for agricultural products, mainly maize, in exchange for iron tools.

The Lenape were major producers of labor intensive wampum , or shell beads, which they traditionally used for ritual purposes and as ornaments. After the Dutch arrival, they began to exchange wampum for beaver furs provided by Iroquoian -speaking Susquehannock and other Minquas. They exchanged these furs for Dutch and, from the late s, also Swedish imports. Relations between some Lenape and Minqua polities briefly turned sour in the late s and early s, but were relatively peaceful most of the time.

The early European settlers, especially the Dutch and Swedes, were surprised at the Lenape's skill in fashioning clothing from natural materials. In hot weather men and women wore only loin cloth and skirt respectively, while they used beaver pelts or bear skins to serve as winter mantles. Additionally, both sexes might wear buckskin leggings and moccasins in cold weather. Deer hair, dyed a deep scarlet, as well as plumes of feathers, were favorite components of headdresses and breast ornaments for males. The women often wore headbands of dyed deer hair or wampum. They painted their skin skirts or decorated them with porcupine quills.

These skirts were so elaborately appointed that, when seen from a distance, they reminded Dutch settlers of fine European lace. One of the more common activities of leisure for the Lenni Lenape would be the game of Pahsaheman : a football-like hybrid, split on gender lines. However, men could not carry and pass the ball, only using their feet, while the women could carry, pass, or kick. Women were free to tackle the men. Another activity common was that of dance, and yet again, gender differences appear: men would dance and leap loudly, often with bear claw accessories, while women, wearing little thimbles or bells, would dance more modestly, stepping "one foot after the other slightly forwards then backwards, yet so as to advance gradually. Linear Measure - There were a number of linear measures which were used.

Small units of measure were the distance from the thumb and first finger and Distance from first finger to pit of elbow. While travel distance was measured in the distance one could comfortably travel from sun-up to sun-down. The Lenape carry the nuts of Aesculus glabra in the pocket for rheumatism , and an infusion of ground nuts mixed with sweet oil or mutton tallow for earaches. They also grind the nuts and use them to poison fish in streams. The first recorded European contact with people presumed to have been the Lenape was in The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was greeted by local Lenape who came by canoe, after his ship entered what is now called Lower New York Bay.

In the 17th century, Lenape primarily interacted with Dutch traders through the fur trade. The Lenape trapped and traded beaver pelts for European-made goods. At the time of sustained European contact in the s and s, the Lenape were a powerful Native American nation who inhabited a region on the mid-Atlantic coast spanning the latitudes of southern Massachusetts to the southern extent of Delaware in what anthropologists call the Northeastern Woodlands. The Lenape had a culture in which the clan and family controlled property. Europeans often tried to contract for land with the tribal chiefs, confusing their culture with that of neighboring tribes such as the Iroquois. All of these added complexities in kinship terms made agreements with Europeans all the more difficult.

The Dutch finally established a garrison at Bergen , which allowed settlement west of the Hudson within the province of New Netherland. This land was purchased from the Lenape after the fact. Dutch settlers also founded a colony at present-day Lewes , Delaware on June 3, and named it Zwaanendael Swan Valley. They defeated the Lenape, and some scholars believe that the Lenape may have become tributaries to the Susquehannock. Based on the historical record of the midth century, it has been estimated that most Lenape polities consisted of several hundred people [50] but it is conceivable that some had been considerably larger prior to close contact, given the wars between the Susquehannocks and the Iroquois, [10] both of whom were armed by the Dutch fur traders, while the Lenape were at odds with the Dutch and so lost that particular arms race.

During the Beaver Wars in the first half of the 17th century, European colonists were careful to keep firearms from the coastally located Delaware, [9] while rival Iroquoian peoples such as the Susquehannocks and Confederation of the Iroquois became comparatively well armed. Iroquoian peoples occasionally fought the Lenape. As the 18th century progressed, many surviving Lenape moved west—into the relatively empty [c] upper Ohio River basin.

Smallpox devastated Native American communities even located far from European settlements by the s. With the fur sources exhausted, the Dutch shifted their operations to present-day upstate New York. The Lenape who produced wampum in the vicinity of Manhattan Island temporarily forestalled the negative effects of the decline in trade. A peace treaty was negotiated between the newly arriving English and Lenape at what is now known as Penn Treaty Park. In the decades immediately following, some 20, new colonists arrived in the region, putting pressure on Lenape settlements and hunting grounds. Penn expected his authority and that of the colonial government to take precedence. His new colony effectively displaced many Lenape and forced others to adapt to new cultural demands.

Penn gained a reputation for benevolence and tolerance, but his efforts resulted in more effective colonization of the ancestral Lenape homeland than previous ones. William Penn died in His heirs, John and Thomas Penn, and their agents were running the colony, and had abandoned many of the elder Penn's practices. Trying to raise money, they contemplated ways to sell Lenape land to colonial settlers. The resulting scheme culminated in the so-called Walking Purchase. In the mids, colonial administrators produced a draft of a land deed dating to the s.

William Penn had approached several leaders of Lenape polities in the lower Delaware to discuss land sales further north. Since the land in question did not belong to their polities, the talks came to nothing. But colonial administrators had prepared the draft that resurfaced in the s. The Penns and their supporters tried to present this draft as a legitimate deed.

Lenape leaders in the lower Delaware refused to accept it. According to historian Steven Harper , what followed was a "convoluted sequence of deception, fraud, and extortion orchestrated by the Pennsylvania government that is commonly known as the Walking Purchase. Some Lenape polities eventually retaliated by attacking Pennsylvania settlements. When they fought British colonial expansion to a standstill at the height of the Seven Years' War , the British government investigated the causes of Lenape resentment.

Johnson had become wealthy as a trader and acquired thousands of acres of land in the Mohawk River Valley from the Iroquois Mohawk of New York. Beginning in the 18th century, the Moravian Church established missions among the Lenape. The Moravians' insistence on Christian Lenapes' abandoning traditional warfare practices alienated mission populations from other Lenape and Native American groups, who revered warriors. The Moravian Lenape who settled permanently in Ontario after the American Revolutionary War were sometimes referred to as " Christian Munsee ", as they mostly spoke the Munsee branch of the Delaware language. During the French and Indian War , the Lenape initially sided with the French, as they hoped to prevent further British colonial encroachment in their territory.

But, such leaders as Teedyuscung in the east and Tamaqua in the vicinity of modern Pittsburgh shifted to building alliances with the English. After the end of the war, however, Anglo-American settlers continued to kill Lenape, often to such an extent that the historian Amy Schutt writes the dead since the wars outnumbered those killed during the war. Sporadically they continued to raid European-American settlers from far outside the area. In April , Teedyuscung was killed when his home was burned. The settlers had been sponsored by the Susquehanna Company. By then living mostly in the Ohio Country , the Lenape supplied the Continental Army with warriors and scouts in exchange for food supplies and security. After the signing of the Treaty of Easton in , the Lenape were forced to move west out of their original lands into what is today known as Ohio.

During the early s, missionaries, including David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder , arrived in the Ohio Country near the Delaware villages. The Moravian Church sent these men to convert the Indigenous peoples to Christianity. The missionaries established several missions, including Gnadenhutten, Lichtenau, and Schoenbrunn. The missionaries pressured Indigenous people to abandon their traditional customs, beliefs, and ways of life, and to replace them with European and Christian ways. Many Lenape did adopt Christianity, but others refused to do so.

The Lenape became a divided people during the s, including in Killbuck's family. Killbuck resented his grandfather for allowing the Moravians to remain in the Ohio territory. The Moravians believed in pacifism, and Killbuck believed that every convert to the Moravians deprived the Lenape of a warrior to stop further white settlement of their land. At the time of the American Revolution, the Lenape in Ohio were deeply divided over which side, if any, to take in the war.

During this time, the Lenape bands were living in numerous villages around their main village of Coshocton , [61] between the western frontier strongholds of the British and the Patriots. At the war's beginning, Killbuck and many Lenape claimed to be neutral. In , Killbuck permitted American soldiers to traverse Delaware territory so that the soldiers could attack Fort Detroit. In return, Killbuck requested that the Americans build a fort near the Natives' major village of Coshocton to provide the Delaware with protection from English attacks.

The Americans agreed and built Fort Laurens, which they garrisoned. They believed that by their proclamation of , restricting Anglo-American settlement to east of the Appalachian Mountains, that the British would help them preserve a Native American territory. The British planned to attack Fort Laurens in early and demanded that the neutral Delawares formally side with the British. Killbuck warned the Americans of the planned attack. His actions helped save the fort, but the Americans abandoned it in August The Delaware had lost their protectors and, in theory, faced attacks from the British, their native allies, and the American settlers who flooded into the area in the late s and early s after the war.

Some Lenape decided to take up arms against the American colonials and moved to the west, closer to Detroit, where they settled on the Scioto and Sandusky rivers. Through this treaty, the Lenape hoped to establish the Ohio territory as a state inhabited exclusively by Native Americans, as a subset of the new United States. A third group of Lenape, many of them converted Christian Munsees , lived in several mission villages run by Moravians.

Like the other bands, they also spoke the Munsee branch of Delaware, an Algonquian language. White Eyes , the Lenape chief who had negotiated the treaty, died in Many Lenape at Coshocton eventually joined the war against the Americans. Surviving residents fled to the north. Colonel Brodhead convinced the militia to leave the Lenape at the Moravian mission villages unmolested, since they were unarmed non-combatants.

The amateur anthropologist Silas Wood published a book claiming that there were several American Indian tribes that were distinct to Long Island, New York. He collectively called them the Metoac. Modern scientific scholarship has shown that two linguistic groups representing two Algonquian cultural identities lived on the island, not "13 individual tribes" as asserted by Wood.

The bands to the west were Lenape. Over a period of years, European settlers pushed the Lenape out of the East Coast and Ohio and pressed them to move further west. Their descendants live on three Indian reserves in Western Ontario , Canada. The largest reserve is at Moraviantown, Ontario , where the Turtle Phratry settled in following the war. After , they removed to Wisconsin, under pressure from state and local governments.

By the Treaty of St. Mary's, signed October 3, in St. Over the next few years, the Delaware settled on the James River in Missouri near its confluence with Wilsons Creek , occupying eventually about 40, acres km 2 of the approximately 2,, acres 8, km 2 allotted to them. The tribes' cabins and cornfields were spread out along the James River and Wilsons Creek. Many Delaware participated in the exploration of the western United States, working as trappers with the mountain men , and as guides and hunters for wagon trains. From California, Fremont needed to communicate with Senator Benton.

Sagundai volunteered to carry the message through some 2, kilometres of hostile territory. He took many scalps in this adventure, including that of a Comanche with a particularly fine horse, who had outrun both Sagundai and the other Comanche. Sagundai was thrown when his horse stepped into a prairie-dog hole, but avoided the Comanche's lance, shot the warrior dead, and caught his horse and escaped the other Comanche.

When Sagundai returned to his own people in present-day Kansas, they celebrated his exploits with the last war and scalp dances of their history, which were held at Edwardsville, Kansas. Senate in , the Delaware were forced to move further west. These lands, in what is now Kansas, were west of the Missouri and north of the Kansas River. The main reserve consisted of about 1,, acres 4, km 2 with an additional "outlet" strip 10 miles 16 km wide extending to the west. In , Congress passed the Kansas—Nebraska Act , which created the Territory of Kansas and opened the area for white settlement. It also authorized negotiation with Indian tribes regarding removal. The Delaware were reluctant to negotiate for yet another relocation, but they feared serious trouble with white settlers, and conflict developed.

As the Delaware were not considered United States citizens, they had no access to the courts and no way to enforce their property rights. The United States Army was to enforce their rights to reservation land after the Indian Agent had both posted a public notice warning trespassers and served written notice on them, a process generally considered onerous.

Major B. Robinson, the Indian Agent appointed in , did his best, but could not control the hundreds of white trespassers who stole stock, cut timber, and built houses and squatted on Delaware lands. By , the Delaware had reached consensus to leave Kansas, which was in accord with the government's Indian removal policy. The main body of Lenape arrived in Indian Territory in the s. A court dispute followed over whether the sale included rights for the Delaware as citizens within the Cherokee Nation. While the dispute was unsettled, the Curtis Act of dissolved tribal governments and ordered the allotment of communal tribal lands to individual households of members of tribes.

The Delaware remained friendly after Texas won its independence. Republic of Texas President, Sam Houston favored a policy of peaceful relations with all tribes. He sought the services of the friendly Delaware and in enlisted several Delaware to protect the frontier from hostile western tribes. Delaware scouts joined with Texas Rangers as they patrolled the western frontier. Houston also tried to get the Delaware land claims recognized but his efforts were only met by opposition. The next Texan President, Mirabeau B. Lamar, completely opposed all Indians. He considered them as illegal intruders who threatened the settlers safety and lands and issued an order for their removal from Texas. In , Houston was reelected to a second term as president and his peaceful Indian policy was then reinstated.

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