① Speech On Racism In History

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Speech On Racism In History



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How to deconstruct racism, one headline at a time - Baratunde Thurston

The practice of importing slaves from India stretches back to the s when the Dutch bought non-Muslim slaves from various kingdoms of India who were ruled by Muslims. A slave-trading station was established in Delagoa Bay present-day Maputo in , but was abandoned in Between and many Madagascan slaves were bought from Madagascar. The Dutch colonial law defined slaves as property that could be traded, bought and sold, a form of slavery known as ' chattel slavery '. There are many examples of racism and discriminatory practices during the colonial period such as whipping, starvation, being forced to work for long hours, laborers having to carry passes, being subject to high taxation, not being able to walk on the sidewalks, banned from living, entering or working in certain areas such as the Orange Free State.

For Indians and Kaffirs—Maize meal, 8 oz. Europeans—Fresh meat, 1 lb. Chiefly horseflesh. For Indians—a little rice. The word " Kaffir " was used with derogatory connotations during the period of European colonial rule until the early 20th century. From , the Cape Colony , known now as the Western Cape , had a representative democracy that granted suffrage to all men regardless of colour. However, beginning in , the British colonialists began to change voting laws in order to impede black votes. Under apartheid, the rights, associations, and movements of the majority black inhabitants and other ethnic groups were curtailed, and white minority rule was maintained. The ideology was also enforced in South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa under a League of Nations mandate revoked in via United Nations Resolution , until it gained independence as Namibia in By extension, the term is currently used for forms of systematic segregation established by the state authority in a country against the social and civil rights of a certain group of citizens due to ethnic prejudices.

The Indian community has been subject to Zulu racist attacks dating back to the arrival of indentured labor in South Africa which ultimately resulted in the Durban Riots of followed by riots in where homes for Indians were set on fire. The first example of apartheid legislation was the Population Registration Act. This act was the first to force citizens to be registered under their race, and this set the stage for later racial tension. One example of apartheid legislation was the Promotion of Bantu Self-Government Act , which was passed into law in This law resulted in forced relocation of Black people reserving much less land for the Black citizens to live, despite making up a large majority of the population.

There were 10 different Bantustans in total, each for separate "ethnic groups". Once they moved on to these lands, the Black South Africans lost their rights as South Africans, and were forced to become permanent residents of the reserves. They were expected to run their own governments once they had arrived. Economic conditions on these lands were not satisfactory for the people there, as the South African government put minimal effort policy-wise into developing these regions economically. Usually , residents of Bantustans would have to commute hours by bus or train to industrial zones on the border of their Bantustan. Even though the South African Government spent much money towards trying to keep the Bantustans viable, the local governments were still plagued by corruption, so normal people rarely felt the effects of the government money.

In the s four of these Bantustans became independent and separated entirely from the South African government, and this was the intent of the Bantustans. To keep all the Black citizens out from South Africa. This act forced Black South African citizens to carry their passbooks with them at all times. If someone was found without their passbook, they could be arrested for no reason other than that. This caused immense anger within the Black community, which would eventually spark the defiance campaign of The oppressive nature of these apartheid laws sparked some resistance within the black South African community, and several oppositional groups were formed.

One of these groups that emerged was the ANC African National Congress , a group which eventually became involved in many resistance activities. This eventually led to the Sharpeville massacre , where 69 Black South Africans were killed, and more were injured. This event resulted in the bloodiest apartheid protest that South Africa would see, and in the moment the Black South African community was horrified.

In response, the following week was full of demonstrations, protests and marches. Because of this, the South African government saw fit to declare a state of emergency, and arrested thousands of people who had been protesting. Numbers approached 10, people by May, and many of these people were not released for months afterwards. Also in the fallout of the Sharpeville massacre, the South African government banned any organisations that were considered a threat to public safety or public order.

Under apartheid, black women were affected to an extreme degree due to discriminatory racial and gender laws. There were not many opportunities for women to become political leaders, as many organisations allowed male membership only, so not many women did get very involved with politics. In a protest of the Natives Abolition of Passes and Coordination of Documents Act of as mentioned above and several other pieces of legislation, many women participated in movements against the government for the first time in the form of the Defiance campaign.

Women were not the only people to take part in this campaign, but the inclusion of women is noteworthy because this was the first campaign to see major participation from women. The movement itself involved thousands of Black citizens doing nonviolent things that would normally be considered as civil disobedience, such as going into areas that only White people were allowed into, or burning their pass books. The idea behind the movement, was that if enough Black people flooded the South African prison and judicial system, then it would force the government to reform the apartheid laws.

Thousands of people were arrested in a matter of months, but the campaign did not accomplish its goal of achieving radical change. However, it did capture the attention of the global community, and that of the United Nations. In time the UN would launch an investigation into the apartheid policy. In the s, resistance to apartheid became extreme. The United Democratic Front was formed in order to try and unite people all over to join in the fight against government oppression.

The leader of the front, Allan Boesak , called for organizations all over South Africa to help him. This included churches, civic associations, trade unions, student organizations, and sports bodies. The UDF became extremely popular among the black community, and helped unite everyone who was fighting for equality, something that had not happened in the past. The government's response was to declare another national emergency, and again South Africa saw thousands of arrests and hundreds of killings. However by , the burden of public violence was too much. The government began losing its tight grip on the country, and eventually the state president, F.

The government's provision of public healthcare was far more comprehensive in white areas, compromising the ability of black people to access such services, and a growing for-profit private healthcare sector among the white population further exacerbated this racial disparity. In , white areas had one doctor per residents, and black areas had one per 4, Benatar in The New England Journal of Medicine used three health outcome statistics to demonstrate the inequality in healthcare between white and black South Africans at the end of Apartheid: in , the mortality rate was 7. Racial populism and anti-minority sentiment is an increasing worry in post-Apartheid South Africa. Although Apartheid was abolished in South Africa, and overt racism against black people is on the decline [ citation needed ] , some [ who?

Milton Shain, Emeritus Professor in the Department of Historical Studies at the University of Cape Town, noted that Indian, coloured and white minorities are increasingly scapegoated by the ANC "in an attempt to cement cracks among the majority insiders and paper over class divisions. Some criticise post-Apartheid South Africa's legally mandated racial representation as racist legislation. In June , politician Helen Zille courted controversy when she commented that "There are more racist laws today than there were under apartheid". He pointed out that, based on research by political analyst James Myburgh, [19] the Apartheid government passed 59 pieces of race-based legislation over a period of 70 years, whereas the post-Apartheid government has passed 90 laws with racial representivity mandates over a period of 25 years.

Jason Myburgh believes that post-Apartheid South Africa is in reality "one racial nationalism [ He argues that because this "is a morally discomforting [idea] for outsiders", "as a result much Western analysis of South Africa [turns] a blind eye to the In , a University of Cape Town report by an independent commission looked into allegations that institutional practices were racist. The commission found "systematic suppression of black excellence in recent years" at the university. Submissions to the commission from students, staff and the public were "rife with stories of better qualified black academics being passed over for employment and promotion in favour of white academics".

The report concluded that racism exists at UCT, "abetted by poor management systems" which "discriminate on a racial basis". Black staff members remain under-represented in the university's senior decision-making bodies. Ahmed Essop , an education specialist at the University of Johannesburg, co-authored a report for the country's education department that concluded that racism and sexism are pervasive in the nation's institutions. A group of white men allegedly verbally abused and humiliated staff at a restaurant near Stellenbosch.

In response to this a black student claimed their response was that anyone who did not speak Afrikaans was an alien in the area. He said that "They were whistling at them like they were whistling [at] dogs. They even jumped over the counter and they were patting them like they were dogs. After deciding to leave the restaurant the three white men and four other young white men allegedly followed him outside and proceeded to hit him. Thabang Mosiako , a black athlete, had his head smashed onto a pavement at a bus stop. The attack was allegedly performed by a group of white students who Moisiako said attacked him when he criticised their racist remarks to another man. The attack was allegedly racially motivated and caused Moisiako to be hospitalised due to his injuries.

A black petrol attendant is attacked in an apparent racially fueled attack that was caught on camera. The fall-out began when the petrol attendant asked two white men not to smoke next to the petrol pumps then later asked them to move to another pump because the one they were at did not have the grade of petrol they needed, they then began to attack him with racial slurs then the altercation soon escalated into a fist fight that saw over four white men attacking the petrol attendant before his colleagues and eventually police intervened. Mr Nathan Maluleke, a 60 year old golf instructor was brutally attacked with a golf club in and this vicious assault left him with head injuries and fighting for his life in hospital.

The incident started over racial abuse and escalated into an attack. Mr Maluleke had noticed a group that was making a lot of noise, using vulgar language and the K-word being used repeatedly, he put his golf bag in the boot of his car, approached the woman walking behind two young men in the group, apparently the woman using the language, to ask her to tone it down as the language being used was not good for the integrity of the place and was generally offensive, as he was speaking to the woman, one of the two men, Matthew van der Walt, turned back and started attacking Mr Maluleke. Nathan ended up on the ground bleeding after being hit over the head with a golf club, Matthew admitted to have continued hitting him and punching him while on the ground as he showed off his hands to other people.

A year-old man, Ron Rambebu, was attacked and called a k-word at a petrol station while he was sitting in his car on Kingfisher Road in Horizon Park, Roodeport, on the West Rand. In the video, the father of three is seen being approached by the attacker. It does not seem like any words are exchanged before the attacker punches Rambebu multiple times through the vehicle's window. Rambebu does not appear to be retaliating during the attack but he attempts to drive off before parking his vehicle and chasing his attacker with a spanner. His attacker is then seen boarding a white Ford Mustang and driving off with his associate. Samora Mangesi , a South African entertainment news broadcaster and presenter, came across a car accident.

Mangesi inquired after the status of the passengers, to which inquiry he and his passengers were called "monkey" and "black bitches". A heated argument ensued, and someone came up behind Mangesi and hit him on the head with an unknown object. He ended up in hospital. The South African Human Rights Commission found a public school guilty of hate speech towards black and mixed-race pupils. After an month investigation, staff and the head teacher were found to have exposed pupils to dehumanising and racist treatment. The Free State Department of Education, responsible for the school, says it will study the report and would hold its own investigation before taking any potential disciplinary action. In , Johan Nel, a white man armed himself with a rifle and proceeded to go to a community of Skierlik, North West, then went on a killing spree.

On a Monday afternoon while most Skierlik inhabitants were at work, Johan dressed in camouflage fatigues walked down a dirt road in an informal settlement and randomly started shooting at people with a hunting rifle while shouting racist invective. He killed three people and severely injured another 11 people, and disappeared onto a nearby farm. In January , Penny Sparrow, a white woman who lived in the coastal city of Durban, compared littering black beachgoers to monkeys.

She faced various legal consequences: the Equality Court considered Sparrow's words to be hate speech in terms of section 10 of the Promotion of Equality and Prevention of Unfair Discrimination Act , and fined her R ; [39] [40] [41] and in the magistrate's court, she was found guilty of crimen iniuria, fined R, and sentenced to two years in prison. The government response to Sparrow's remark has been criticised as emblematic of the negative prejudice that white people face, and the beneficial bias that black people enjoy, in the South African legal system. Other incidents of bigotry, for example misogyny or anti-Semitism by black people, have not received a similarly harsh response by the government. Two white men, Willem Oosthuizen and Theo Jackson, in were put behind bars for a racially motivated assault on a black man after they alleged he had trespassed, in their sentences and conviction was adjusted finding the pair guilty of assault with intent to do grievous bodily harm and kidnapping.

Shockley visited campus in to defend his argument on genetic superiority, students protested. Shockley was held. In , 75 students and community members walked out of an event with Charles Murray, in protest of his views in his book The Bell Curve , where he argued that Black communities had differences in achievement because of genetic factors. Image: Black Justice League student organizers staging a protest in In , they performed with face paint and loincloths while drumming, which was viewed by many as mocking African cultures. Image: Screenshot of the performance by Urban Congo in In the aftermath of the Urban Congo incident, anonymous peers personally attacked Black students and those who defended them on the social media platform Yik Yak.

Like it got to the point where we were jaded and disillusioned. Even, for example, I think it was T. So, people would be walking around with like crunk juice and like chains and like—just like super racist. Blackface happened, right. In the summer of , a white Princeton undergraduate sent a Facebook response containing a racial slur to a Black Fordham recent graduate. It was one of the most evil things I have ever witnessed, and I do not say this lightly.

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