⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Negative Stereotypes In Labour Management

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Negative Stereotypes In Labour Management

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Examples of Stereotypes

It should be noted that, similar to previous studies, we examined school textbooks by restricting the analysis to a single-subject textbook, as well as from a single grade. However, as discussed in section 3, this is less than ideal since the findings, particularly country rankings, can be sensitive to sample composition. Moreover, in countries governed by a federal system, textbook content can vary by location.

To address these concerns, we examined additional textbooks to verify whether our results change depending on the textbook type. We do so by looking at five additional English textbooks, from both primary and secondary school levels, as well as four subject-specific books used in grade 9 in the Punjab province of Pakistan. This sensitivity analysis is, however, based on pictorial indicators only. To assess whether the results are specific to the Punjab province, we repeated the full content analysis text as well as picture using the grade 9 English textbook from KPK, one of the poorest provinces of Pakistan see Table 2 for details. Exclusion or under-representation of one gender in the textbook is one form of gender stereotype and discrimination.

Table 4 presents our findings for each category using both text and pictures. The figures in the table show the percentage of female presence for each indicator and the figure in parenthesis indicates the total number of the respective item in the textbook. In the nine word-related sub-categories, the average female share is Regarding the sentence-related sub-category, average female exclusion is In the sub-category relating to stories, we found female presence to be Finally, the visual representation sub-categories show the female share to be Findings based on 19 indicators reported in Table 4 show that female presence is lower However, there is important variation across countries regarding female exclusion.

The sum of 19 categories shows a nearly balanced percentage share between males and females in Malaysian In contrast, we find high female exclusion in Pakistani This finding is consistent with female share in non-pictorial indicators. However in pictorial indicators, the Indonesian textbook has a very high female share There are no images with human figures in the Pakistani textbook from the Punjab board.

Also, even though there is apparent gender parity in the Malaysian and Indonesian textbooks, we still find considerable gender disparity when individual indicators are considered. To better understand exclusion in the context of previous studies, Table 5 below summarizes the findings of female-male visibility in previous studies of five developed non-Muslim majority countries and five developing Muslim majority countries. The findings of our study resemble all the recent studies conducted in developing countries as well as the findings from studies and textbooks used in developed countries two to three decades ago.

All these studies identified the share of male presence between 65—75 percent and the share of female presence between 25—35 percent in the textbooks. However, the country-specific findings of this study reveal surprising facts about exclusion. It shows that the degree of exclusion in the Malaysian and Indonesian textbooks is quite different from the degree of exclusion in the Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks. The former two countries resemble the findings of recent studies in developed countries showing a more balanced gender representation.

On the other hand, in the Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks, the degree of exclusion also varies but resembles findings of developing countries in general. While the Bangladeshi textbook almost resembles the overall finding of this study, the Pakistani textbook represents a much higher female exclusion, which is consistent with findings from recent studies using Pakistani textbooks. In addition to the under-representation of one gender in textbooks, gender stereotyped representations or false portrayal of one gender is another form of gender stereotyping.

In contrast to the categories reported in Table 4 , which are primarily quantitative measures of female exclusion, these four categories capture both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of gender representation. The high percentage of female characters in domestic roles is one of the common forms of gender-stereotyped representation in textbooks [ 64 , 84 ]. We find that females are presented in domestic roles four times more than their male counterparts see Table 6. The four-country average female representation in different social roles is Even for the Malaysian textbook, which have a fairly balanced female aggregate presence using the 19 indicators i. Meanwhile, in the Pakistani textbook, no male character is depicted in a domestic role.

This shows a promising shift in the use of terms when addressing female characters, moving from focusing on their marital identity to their independent identity. Table 8 below shows the most stated professions for both female and male characters. The overall findings show that professions attached to female characters are traditional, and lower in prestige and income. This finding is in line with previous studies using Pakistani, German and other textbooks [ 60 , 65 , 78 , , ].

Moreover, surprisingly in the Bangladeshi textbook, the professional roles are more prestigious and demanding than in any of the other textbooks such as a lawyer, social scientist or even a TV anchor. In the textbooks, women are often found to be portrayed as weak, victimized, passive and subordinate [ 60 , 70 , 84 , 99 , ]. On the other hand, the image of male characters reflects quite the opposite personality; as they are portrayed as bold, brave and active agents in society.

In this study, we used the five factor model [ ] to identify the personality traits of female and male characters in the textbooks see Table 9. The five factor model [ ] is a popular method used in studies dealing with personality traits; it identifies five different traits: extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness [ ]. This study uses a list of adjectives developed by John [ ] for each of the five personality traits. The adjectives are divided into two groups: high and low.

Using this list, an individual is given either a high or a low score for each personality trait. A high score in extraversion E , openness O and conscientiousness C is quite the opposite of a high score in neuroticism N and agreeableness A. For instance, having a low score in the former three is the same as being introverted, closed, and having a lack of direction [ , ]. Whereas having a low score in the latter two is tantamount to being emotionally stable and analytical. Table 9 shows female-male percentage share at each of the personality traits categories. Of the selected attributes, only 39 attributes were found for women Therefore, the direct reading of the table can be misleading, if one intends to compare gender-wise share at each of the five low and high traits.

Therefore, a better way to identify male-female personality trait is through extrovert-introvert ratio of male and female for each country for each of the five traits i. Thus, an absolute extroversion will show extrovert-introvert ratio would entail a result of and for absolute introversion. Our result shows that for males, the extrovert-introvert ratio is , , and for Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh and ratio of , , and for females respectively. This means, except for Indonesia, the other three countries have high male share in favor of extroverted traits and introverted ones.

Similarly, for females, only Pakistani textbook favors extroverted traits that too is due to exclusion problem. On the other hand, both Malaysian and Bangladeshi textbooks have high female share in introverted traits than extroverted ones. In our sample, Malaysia is the only country where we find equal male-female attributes range for testing the attributes the other three has exclusion problem. Even for Malaysia our result show males favoring extroverted personality traits while females as introvert and passive, a finding that is consistent with past studies [ 27 , 80 , 84 , 99 , ].

Besides, this demarcation is also visible how female and male characters are presented in the textbooks. Some of the common characters attributed to men include: disciplined , responsible , sensible , visionary , legendary etc. I am depressed. One criticism of the existing quantitative analyses of textbook content is that they rely on very specific samples and, therefore, it is difficult to generalize the results. Our analysis can be criticized on the same grounds, as we have only used grade 9 English textbooks from each of the study countries. In this section, we, therefore, assess the sensitivity of our findings by using additional textbooks from one of our study countries.

Since Pakistan is ranked behind other sample countries in terms of…, we conduct the sensitivity analysis using other Pakistani textbooks. We do this to ascertain whether the poor ranking is as a result of the textbook we chose, or due to the absence of other variables causing heterogeneity in our data. First, we repeat the analysis of the picture contents of English textbooks used in different grades in the Punjab province see Table The grade 9 sample textbook has no pictures, while all the books used in grades 4 to 8 and 10 contain pictures. A total of pages from five textbooks were analyzed using pictorial indicators. The percentages in Table 9 show that in all secondary school textbooks, Pakistan is behind the other sample countries regarding female presence see Table 4.

This is true in all domains, i. The percentage of pictures with females ranges from 11 to 25 percent considering all grades. Only the grade 4 textbook appears to have a balanced representation of males and females. Second, we assess whether the poor ranking of Pakistan is because we restricted our analysis to English language textbooks only. We repeat the analysis of the Pakistan textbooks from the Punjab province using grade 9 Chemistry, Mathematics, Science, and Biology textbooks.

In total, we examined pictorial contents from pages for this analysis. As can be seen from Table 11 , grade 9 textbooks from the Punjab province, in general, contain very few pictures. Chemistry and Biology books contained as many as 58 and 21 pictures with human figures respectively, and all of them were male. Lastly, we repeated the same analysis as in Table 4 using a grade 9 English textbook from KPK, a different province in Pakistan see Table In 9 out of the 19 non-picture related categories, the female share is lower in the KPK textbook as compared to the Punjab textbook.

In sum, the analysis of textbooks from a different province KPK as well as those relating to different subjects and grades in the Punjab province confirm that at least in the context of Pakistan, findings based on our main analysis are not driven by the textbook subject or grade. Irrespective of what textbook we used from Pakistan, it lagged behind the other study countries regarding female presence in textbooks. Moreover, female characters were mostly associated with traditional and low wage occupations as well as more passive personality traits. The extent of stereotypes found in the textbooks, however, varies across countries. The Malaysian and Indonesian textbooks have a more egalitarian representation of females than their South Asian counterparts, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

On the other hand, compared to the other three countries, women in Bangladeshi textbooks are described in a wider range of professional roles such as teachers and lawyers. Overall, the contents of the Pakistani textbook show the highest percentage of stereotypes regarding exclusion , while the lowest was found in the Malaysian textbook. The Pakistani textbook consistently ranks below the Malaysian, Indonesian, and Bangladeshi in almost all gender indicators. Using province, subject and grade specific textbooks, we further show that the poor ranking of the Pakistani textbook, in comparison to the other study countries is not as a result of the specific textbook used in our primary analysis.

Among other things, while textbooks in Indonesia and Malaysia have higher gender balance when compared to Pakistan, our analysis also highlights areas where there is room for further improvement in textbook gender content regarding quality of representation in these two countries. Nonetheless, the observed regional differences are consistent with the relatively higher economic status women in Southeast Asian countries enjoy in comparison to other developing countries [ , ] and in line with evidence presented in earlier studies using textbook content analysis [ 87 ]. Our findings have important implications for gender and education policies in developing countries.

This approach implicitly assumes that the education system will empower women by preparing them for the job market. Our results highlight the need to go beyond the current policy focus on improving access to education among girls. In that sense, our findings add to the recent research that warns about the limitations of fostering gender equity exclusively through school-based initiatives [ , , ].

In this regard, the Global Monitoring Report rightly stressed the need to revise textbook content and restore gender balance as well as encourage children to question gender stereotypes in the society [ ]. However, not all governments have been equally successful in addressing the problem. In the case of Pakistan, the — Education for All EFA action plan also acknowledged the need to free textbooks of gender bias. Despite this policy initiative and clear evidence of gender bias in learning materials documented in academic research conducted in the s and s, we found evidence of gender stereotypes in Pakistani school textbooks across grades, subjects, and provinces.

The lack of change in textbook content in Pakistan partly reflects the fact that chairmen and directors of textbook boards in the country believe that gender portrayals of the textbooks should be in agreement with the status quo [ 84 ]. This suggests that simply re-prioritizing the elimination of stereotypes in school textbooks and classroom practices in policy documents may not be enough to attain the SDGs of gender equality by Changing the mindset of policymakers remains a key challenge. A participatory approach that ensures a wider consultation of teachers, authors, and reviewers of both genders in curriculum and textbook review as well as development is critical [ 93 ].

Such consultation processes should also include comprehensive expert reviews of textbook gender contents such as this one. Lastly, while the extant literature primarily documenting gender bias in curriculum materials is growing, why countries differ in terms of textbook quality is unclear. One popular explanation is the male dominated textbook development process [ 93 ], though it is difficult to statistically validate this hypothesis based on a small sample of textbooks.

Political factors can also influence curriculum development, particularly in countries where the delivery of education is decentralized to the state level. Moreover, very few studies have attempted to evaluate the impact of programs which make textbooks gender-sensitive [ ]. Evidence suggests considerable variations in support for gender stereotypes among students across schools that differ in terms of curriculum content [ ].

Follow-up studies focusing on the causes of cross-country variation in gender contents as well as evaluation of existing initiatives to remove gender bias in textbook content will be informative. Equally, while our analysis confirms that textbooks disseminate a hidden curriculum among students, we did not empirically test whether actual student attitudes systematically vary owing to the textbooks they used in school. This is left for future research. The usual disclaimers apply. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education.

Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper. Introduction Despite their growing presence in the labor force and educational institutions in the last few decades, women remain socially marginalized and underrepresented within, as well as, outside of households in low-income countries [ 1 , 2 ]. Download: PPT. Table 1. Literature review In this section, we first focus on the theories of gender stereotypes based on differences in school curricula only. Research design, the sample, and data Our primary study population of interest is secondary school English language textbooks used in the ninth grade in the academic year of [ 94 — 97 ].

Table 2. Description of the sample textbooks. Main findings Gender visibility: Exclusion vs. Table 4. Female exclusion in text and illustrations by country. Table 5. Overall representation of women in percentage , sample composition and indicators used in selected published studies a , b. Improper representation In addition to the under-representation of one gender in textbooks, gender stereotyped representations or false portrayal of one gender is another form of gender stereotyping. Table 8. Table 9. Representation in domestic roles. Terms used when addressing female characters.

Representation in professional roles or occupations Table 8 below shows the most stated professions for both female and male characters. Representation in personality traits In the textbooks, women are often found to be portrayed as weak, victimized, passive and subordinate [ 60 , 70 , 84 , 99 , ]. Sensitivity analysis One criticism of the existing quantitative analyses of textbook content is that they rely on very specific samples and, therefore, it is difficult to generalize the results.

Table Grade-wise analysis of female presence in English language textbooks in Pakistan the Punjab province only. Subject-wise analysis of female presence in grade 9 textbooks in Pakistan the Punjab province only. Province-wise results of female presence in the English language textbooks in Pakistan grade 9. References 1. World Bank. Washington D. C: World Bank, UN Women. International Labor Organization. ILO, UN Chronicle. Blumberg RL. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Bank W. Washington DC. Abadian S. Women's autonomy and its impact on fertility. World development. View Article Google Scholar Balatchandirane G.

International studies. Dollar D, Gatti R. Gender inequality, income, and growth: are good times good for women? An uncertain glory: India and its contradictions: Princeton University Press; Klasen S, Lamanna F. The impact of gender inequality in education and employment on economic growth: new evidence for a panel of countries. Feminist economics. Jain AK. The effect of female education on fertility: A simple explanation. Jimenez E, Patrinos HA. Can cost-benefit analysis guide education policy in developing countries? Sen A. Development as freedom: Oxford Paperbacks; See Section 2. Employers must also inform the committee or health and safety representative if a person is killed, critically injured, disabled from performing their usual work, or requires medical attention due to workplace violence [sections 51 1 and 52 1 ].

For more information, see Guide for health and safety committees and representatives. An employer must consult with the joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative, if any, in developing and maintaining the workplace harassment program [section The employer should therefore consult when a workplace harassment program is first being developed and when it is subsequently maintained.

Feedback should be documented and may be included in meeting minutes for the joint health and safety committee. Where the OHSA or its regulations require that an action be taken in consultation with the joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative, the employer should engage in a meaningful discussion with these parties, and provide all relevant information to them. The consultation could take place electronically for example, through posting or emailing the program to solicit feedback from committees or representatives , or during a meeting with the committee or representative. Consultation is not simply informing the committee or health and safety representative that the employer intends to take action. There should be a genuine opportunity for the committee or health and safety representative to comment, and those comments should be received and considered in good faith.

Ministry of Labour, Training and Skills Development health and safety inspectors may check to ensure employers, supervisors and workers are complying with workplace violence and workplace harassment requirements. They may do this as part of a general inspection of a workplace or when investigating a specific complaint or incident. Inspectors may issue written orders to comply with the Act when contraventions are found [section 57]. Ministry inspectors do not resolve or mediate specific allegations of harassment in the workplace. Inspectors do not investigate allegations to determine if the behaviour of any of the individuals involved constitutes workplace harassment as defined by the Act.

Inspectors do not have the authority to order individual remedies such as monetary compensation to individuals who experience harassment in the workplace. Police may also investigate incidents that fall under the Criminal Code such as assault, sexual assault and criminal harassment. Canada's Criminal Code deals with matters such as assault, sexual assaults, threats of bodily harm and behaviours such as stalking.

The police should be contacted immediately when an act of violence has occurred in the workplace or when someone in the workplace is threatened with violence. Ontario's Human Rights Code is a provincial law that gives everyone equal rights and opportunities without discrimination or harassment in specific areas such as employment, housing and services. Disability covers a broad range and degree of conditions, some visible and others not. A disability may be present from birth, caused by an accident or developed over time. It may include physical, mental and learning disabilities, mental disorders, hearing or vision disabilities, epilepsy, drug and alcohol dependencies, environmental sensitivities, as well as other conditions.

Under the Human Rights Code, protection from discrimination or harassment includes past, present and perceived conditions involving disabilities. For example, a person who experiences discrimination because he or she was an alcoholic in the past is protected. Similarly, a person whose condition does not limit his or her workplace abilities at present, but who may be at greater risk of having limitations in the future is also protected. When dealing with workplace violence and harassment, employers should be aware of their responsibilities for people with disabilities under the Human Rights Code. Under the Code, employers have an obligation to keep the workplace free of discrimination and harassment related to one or more of the Code's protected grounds.

The Code also prohibits unwelcome sexual solicitation by a person who is in a position to confer, grant or deny a benefit or advancement, or a reprisal or threat of reprisal made in this context. Employers, supervisors and workers may be held liable under Ontario's human rights system if harassment occurs in the workplace or at work-related functions. They may also be liable for failing to take proper steps to address and prevent that harassment.

An employer who wishes to learn more about his or her obligations under the code should visit the websites of the Commission or the Tribunal. A worker who believes that a matter involving prohibited grounds was not properly addressed by his or her workplace should contact the Human Rights Legal Support Centre for help, or the Tribunal directly to file an application. Ontario's health and safety system partners can provide information, products, services and training programs to help workplaces comply with the workplace violence and workplace harassment provisions in the OHSA. The management of [insert company name] is committed to the prevention of workplace violence and is ultimately responsible for worker health and safety. We will take whatever steps are reasonable to protect our workers from workplace violence from all sources.

The workplace may wish to insert the Occupational Health and Safety Act 's definition of workplace violence and to list the sources of workplace violence. Violent behaviour in the workplace is unacceptable from anyone. This policy applies to the workplace may wish to list who this policy applies to, especially if it applies to people other than workers such as visitors, clients, delivery persons and volunteers, etc.

Everyone is expected to uphold this policy and to work together to prevent workplace violence. There is a workplace violence program that implements this policy. It includes measures and procedures to protect workers from workplace violence, a means of summoning immediate assistance and a process for workers to report incidents, or raise concerns. The workplace may wish to specify and expand upon the components of the workplace violence program here. All workers and supervisors will receive appropriate information and instruction on the contents of the policy and program. Supervisors will adhere to this policy and the supporting program. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that measures and procedures are followed by workers and that workers have the information they need to protect themselves.

Every worker must work in compliance with this policy and the supporting program. All workers are encouraged to raise any concerns about workplace violence and to report any violent incidents or threats. The workplace may wish to provide more information about how to report incidents, and may wish to emphasize there will be no negative consequences for reports made in good faith. Management pledges to investigate and deal with all incidents and complaints of workplace violence in a fair and timely manner, respecting the privacy of all concerned as much as possible. The workplace harassment policy should be consulted whenever there are concerns about harassment in the workplace.

The workplace violence program required by section This document suggests measures, procedures and processes for each of the mandatory elements. In addition, there are suggestions for additional elements that could be included in the program. The workplace violence program should clearly indicate the roles and responsibilities of employers, supervisors, workers and others in the measures, procedures and processes. The program should include the workplace violence definition from the OHSA , and should clearly indicate the actions or behaviours that are covered by it. An assessment of risks arising from the nature of the workplace, type and conditions of work must inform the development of the workplace violence program. The assessment must take circumstances specific to the workplace and common to similar workplaces into account.

The risks must be reassessed as often as is necessary to ensure the related policy and program continue to protect workers. Measures and procedures to control the risks of workplace violence identified in the risk assessment as likely to expose a worker to physical injury. Measures and procedures for summoning immediate assistance when workplace violence occurs or is likely to occur. Measures and procedures for workers to report incidents of workplace violence to the employer or supervisor. In addition to the mandatory elements above, a workplace violence program could also include information to support compliance with requirements in the OHSA , such as:.

A program could also include additional measures, procedures and processes, depending on the circumstances of a particular workplace. To have a better experience, you need to: Go to your browser's settings Enable JavaScript. Understand the law on workplace violence and harassment Workers, supervisors and employers have rights and duties when dealing with workplace violence and harassment. On this page Skip this page navigation. About this guide This guide explains what every worker, supervisor, employer and constructor needs to know about workplace violence and workplace harassment requirements in the Occupational Health and Safety Act OHSA.

Introduction Ontario's Occupational Health and Safety Act OHSA footnote 1 [1] sets out the rights and duties for occupational health and safety of all parties in the workplace. Background Workers may face violence and harassment in any workplace and from any person in that workplace. Key terms and concepts 1. A workplace could be a building, mine, construction site, vehicle, open field, road or forest. A secondary school student who performs work or supplies services for no monetary compensation under a work experience program authorized by the school board that operates the school in which the student is enrolled.

A person who performs work or supplies services for no monetary compensation under a program approved by a college of applied arts and technology, university or other post-secondary institution. A person who receives training from an employer, but who, under the Employment Standards Act, , is not an employee for the purposes of that Act because the conditions set out in subsection 1 2 of that Act have been met. Such other persons as may be prescribed who perform work or supply services to an employer for no monetary compensation.

It also includes an: attempt to exercise physical force against a worker in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker; and a statement or behaviour that a worker could reasonably interpret as a threat to exercise physical force against the worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker [section 1].

This may include: verbally threatening to attack a worker; leaving threatening notes at or sending threatening e-mails to a workplace; shaking a fist in a worker's face; wielding a weapon at work; hitting or trying to hit a worker; throwing an object at a worker; sexual violence against a worker; kicking an object the worker is standing on such as a ladder; or trying to run down a worker using a vehicle or equipment such as a forklift. What if a worker is accidentally pushed or hurt? Does the person need to intend to hurt the worker? What is workplace harassment? This may include: making remarks, jokes or innuendos that demean, ridicule, intimidate, or offend; displaying or circulating offensive pictures or materials in print or electronic form; bullying; repeated offensive or intimidating phone calls or e-mails; or workplace sexual harassment.

What isn't workplace harassment? What is workplace sexual harassment? Workplace sexual harassment may include: asking questions, talking, or writing about sexual activities; rough or vulgar humour or language related to sexuality, sexual orientation or gender; displaying or circulating pornography, sexual images, or offensive sexual jokes in print or electronic form; leering or inappropriate staring; invading personal space; unnecessary physical contact, including inappropriate touching; demanding hugs, dates, or sexual favours; making gender-related comments about someone's physical characteristics, mannerisms, or conformity to sex-role stereotypes; verbally abusing, threatening or taunting someone based on gender or sexual orientation; or, threatening to penalize or otherwise punish a worker if they refuse a sexual advance.

What are gender identity and gender expression? Workplace violence 2. These general duties also apply to workplace violence [section This policy is required regardless of the size of the workplace or the number of workers. Can the workplace violence policy and program be combined? Yes, as long as all of the requirements for the policy and program are complied with. Can the workplace violence policy be combined with other polices? The employer must: assess the risk of workplace violence that may arise from the nature of the workplace, type of work or conditions of work [section These measures and procedures must be part of the workplace violence program [section What is meant by the phrase the nature of the workplace, the type of work or the conditions of work?

What is meant by the phrase circumstances specific to the workplace? Circumstances specific to the workplace could include: layout and design of the workplace; geographic location of the workplace; work carried out and conditions of work, including activities or circumstances associated with a higher risk of violence see list below ; protective measures and procedures, including security measures, that may already be in place; and past violent incidents in the workplace. These include: handling cash; protecting or securing valuables; transporting people and goods; a mobile workplace such as a vehicle ; public or community contact; working with unstable or volatile people; working alone or with just a few people; and working late nights or very early mornings.

How does the employer take into account circumstances that would be common to similar workplaces? Similar workplaces may also have activities or work conditions in common. Can one assessment be done for multiple workplaces? An assessment of the risks of workplace violence should be specific to the workplace. How can an assessment be done if workers are constantly changing locations e. Is the employer required to assess the risks of violence between individual workers? It could be difficult for the employer to predict when violence may occur between individual workers However, a review of incidents or threats of violence from all sources may indicate the origins of workplace violence and likelihood of violence between workers at a particular workplace.

How often should reassessment take place? For example, a reassessment should be undertaken if: the workplace moves or the existing workplace is renovated or reconfigured; there are significant changes in the type of work for example, more expensive items are being sold ; there are significant changes in the conditions of work for example, closing at a later hour ; there is new information on the risks of workplace violence; or, a violent incident indicates a risk related to the nature of the workplace, type of work, or conditions of work was not identified during an earlier assessment.

It is recommended the employer review the assessment at least annually. The program must include: measures and procedures to control the risks identified in the assessment required under subsection Can a workplace adopt a program that exists at another workplace? We have done an assessment and have not identified any risks that are likely to expose a worker to physical injury.

Do we still need a workplace violence program? While no specific measures or procedures may be needed to control risks, a workplace violence program would still be required because it would need to provide measures and procedures for: summoning immediate assistance; reporting incidents or complaints of workplace violence; and investigating and dealing with workplace violence incidents and complaints, if they occur. How often should the workplace violence program be reviewed and revised? Workers should: know how to summon immediate assistance; know how to report incidents of workplace violence to the employer or supervisor; know how the employer will investigate and deal with incidents, threats or complaints; know, understand and be able to carry out the measures and procedures that are in place to protect them from workplace violence; and be able to carry out any other procedures that are part of the program.

Other related information and instruction duties Under the OHSA , an employer has a general duty to provide information, instruction and supervision to protect a worker [section 25 2 a ]. When and how often should instruction take place? However, this duty is limited and applies only when the: worker can be expected to encounter the violent person in the course of his or her work; and the risk of workplace violence is likely to expose the worker to physical injury.

What factors should I consider in determining what is likely to expose a worker to physical injury? Some factors to consider include: Was the history of violence associated with the workplace or work? Was the history of violence directed at a particular worker or workers in general? How long ago did the incident s of violence occur? What measures and procedures are in place in the existing workplace violence program? Do I have to tell every worker about a person with a history of violent behaviour? Depending on the results, the employer would not have to provide a worker with specific information about the violent person if the worker was: not likely to encounter that person in his or her work; or not at risk of physical injury from that person.

What information do I have to disclose to workers? What about privacy legislation? In such cases, employers may wish to seek legal advice. Do I have to disclose personal medical information? Am I required to conduct criminal background checks on people in the workplace? Domestic violence may put the targeted worker at risk, and may also pose a threat to co-workers. Employers must be prepared to investigate and deal with these concerns on a case-by-case basis. How might an employer become aware of domestic violence that may enter the workplace?

What is the employer's obligation if the targeted worker does not want the employer to take any steps? Does an employer have to assess the risk that domestic violence will occur in the workplace? Do all workers have the right to refuse work due to workplace violence? Certain workers who protect public safety cannot refuse work if: the danger is an inherent or normal part of their job or the refusal would endanger the life, health or safety of another person. These workers are: police officers; firefighters; workers employed in correctional institutions; and, workers employed in workplaces such as hospitals, nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, rehabilitation facilities, residential group homes for persons with physical or mental disabilities, ambulance services, first aid clinics, licensed laboratories or in any laundry, food service, power plant or technical service used by one of the above [section 43 2 ].

Where must workers stay during a work refusal? The location will depend on the circumstances that led to the work refusal. Can a worker refuse work on the basis of a threat? Does all work need to be suspended during an investigation if there is a work refusal due to workplace violence? Can the measures and procedures that an employer has in place affect a worker's right to refuse due to workplace violence? An employer must: immediately notify, by direct means such as telephone, a Ministry of Labour, Training and Skills Development inspector, the workplace's joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative and union, if any; and within 48 hours notify, in writing, a director of the Ministry of Labour, Training and Skills Development, giving the circumstances of the occurrence and any information that may be prescribed footnote 6 [6].

Notices are not required for incidents of harassment. Workplace harassment Workplace harassment may escalate to threats or acts of physical violence or a targeted worker may react violently to prolonged harassment in the workplace. The policy is required regardless of the size of the workplace or the number of workers. Can the workplace harassment policy and program be combined? Can the workplace harassment policy be combined with other policies? The program must include: measures and procedures for workers to report incidents of workplace harassment to the employer or supervisor [section To whom can workers report incidents of workplace harassment if the employer or supervisor is the alleged harasser?

What are the requirements for confidentiality? Does an employer have to assess the risk that harassment may occur in the workplace? The Act does not require an employer to assess the risk of workplace harassment. Depending on the circumstances of the incident or complaint, a workplace harassment investigation could be carried out by: someone in the workplace such as a manager or a supervisor, or a member of the human resources department ; someone in the organization such as someone from another company location or from the corporate head office ; someone associated with the workplace or organization such as someone from another franchise or from a business association ; or someone from outside the workplace or organization such as a licensed private investigator, a human resource professional, or a lawyer.

What is an appropriate investigation? Stages in a more complex investigation could include: a review of details of the incident or complaint, including any relevant documents; an interview or interviews with the worker alleging harassment; an interview or interviews with the alleged harasser, if he or she works for the same employer; an interview or interviews with the alleged harasser, if he or she is not a worker and if it is possible and appropriate; separate interviews with relevant witnesses; examination of relevant documents or other evidence that pertains to the investigation such as emails, notes, photographs, or videos ; a decision about whether a complaint or incident is workplace harassment; and preparation of a report summarizing the incident or complaint, the steps taken during the investigation, the evidence gathered, and findings such as whether workplace harassment occurred, did not occur, or that it was not possible to make a determination.

What is an appropriate investigation when the alleged harasser is the employer or supervisor? What if there are multiple complaints about the same person? Does the employer have to hire a person who specializes in harassment investigations? Does the investigation have to be completed within a certain time period? Is the employer's program the only way workers can address a workplace harassment incident or complaint? For example, a worker may: contact the Human Rights Legal Support Centre for help, or the Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario directly, to file an application to have their matter heard if the alleged harassment is based on one of the grounds prohibited under Ontario's Human Rights Code; or seek to resolve harassment issues through the grievance arbitration process if they are represented by a union; or seek to resolve harassment issues through civil litigation, depending on the circumstances.

Could a workplace use alternative dispute resolution or mediation to resolve a complaint of workplace harassment? Can the worker alleging harassment or the alleged harasser use a support person during the investigation? What if the worker who was allegedly harassed will not co-operate with the investigation? What if an investigation reveals concerns about workplace violence? What are corrective actions? Corrective actions are actions taken to try to prevent a reoccurrence of workplace harassment. What if the alleged harasser has left the workplace? What if the alleged harasser works for another company? The requirement to review the program as often as necessary could be triggered if within 12 months of the latest review, an incident, complaint, or investigation revealed: deficiencies or gaps in the measures and procedures set out in the program; or measures and procedures that were not followed in a particular harassment case.

Workers should also: know how to report incidents of workplace harassment to the employer or supervisor; know how to report incidents of workplace harassment where the employer or supervisor is the alleged harasser; know how the employer will investigate and deal with incidents or complaints of workplace harassment; know how information about an incident or complaint of workplace harassment will be kept confidential; and, know that the results of an investigation and any corrective actions will be provided to the worker who alleged harassment and to the alleged harasser if working for the same employer.

This could include: how to respond appropriately and sensitively to complaints or disclosures of harassment; how to collect pertinent information about the complaint; how to investigate a complaint or otherwise take action; how to deal with confidentiality before, during, and after an investigation; how to document an investigation; and how to keep records. Who would be considered to be an impartial person under section An example of a person an employer could engage to conduct a workplace investigation, subject to the circumstances of the case and to any criteria set out in the order, could include someone who is: from a different branch of the same company; from the corporate office; or from another related franchise.

Where it would be more appropriate for a third party to investigate, the person could be someone who is: a business leader in the community or a business association; a certified human resource professional ; a lawyer ; or a licensed private investigator. Roles and responsibilities 4. Workplace harassment An employer must consult with the joint health and safety committee or health and safety representative, if any, in developing and maintaining the workplace harassment program [section What does in consultation with mean? The code's goal is to prevent discrimination and harassment based on the following grounds: race ancestry place of origin colour ethnic origin citizenship creed religion sex including pregnancy sexual orientation gender identity gender expression age 18 and over, 16 and over in accommodation marital status including same sex partners family status disability receipt of public assistance in accommodation only , and record of offences in employment only.

Ontario's human rights system consists of three separate and independent parts. They are the: Human Rights Tribunal of Ontario which decides if someone's human rights have been violated. Leidner suggests that rigid compliance with these expectations is at least potentially damaging to workers' sense of self and identity. However, Leidner did not see the negative consequences of emotional labor in the workers she studied. Instead, McDonald's workers attempted to individualize their responses to customers in small ways. Specifically, they used humor or exaggeration to demonstrate their rebellion against the strict regulation of their employee—customer interactions.

According to Larson and Yao , empathy should characterize physicians' interactions with their patients because, despite advancement in medical technology , the interpersonal relationship between physicians and patients remains essential to quality healthcare. Specifically, according to Larson and Yao , physicians engage in emotional labor through deep acting by feeling sincere empathy before, during, and after interactions with patients. On the other hand, Larson and Yao argue that physicians engage in surface acting when they fake empathic behaviors toward the patient.

Although Larson and Yao argue that deep acting is preferred, physicians may rely on surface acting when sincere empathy for patients is impossible. Overall, Larson and Yao argue that physicians are more effective and enjoy more professional satisfaction when they engage in empathy through deep acting due to emotional labor. According to Martin , police work involves substantial amounts of emotional labor by officers, who must control their own facial and bodily displays of emotion in the presence of other officers and citizens. For example, police must have a commanding presence that allows them to act decisively and maintain control in unpredictable situations while having the ability to actively listen and talk to citizens.

According to Martin , a police officer who displays too much anger , sympathy , or other emotion while dealing with danger on the job will be viewed by other officers as someone unable to withstand the pressures of police work, due to the sexist views of many police officers. Ultimately, the ability of police officers to effectively engage in emotional labor affects how other officers and citizens view them. Many scholars argue that the amount of emotional work required between all levels of government is greatest on the local level. It is at the level of cities and counties that the responsibility lies for day to day emergency preparedness, firefighters, law enforcement, public education, public health, and family and children's services.

Citizens in a community expect the same level of satisfaction from their government, as they receive in a customer service -oriented job. This takes a considerate amount of work for both employees and employers in the field of public administration. There are two comparisons that represent emotional labor within public administration, "Rational Work versus Emotion Work", and "Emotional Labor versus Emotional Intelligence. Many scholars argue that when public administrators perform emotional labor, they are dealing with significantly more sensitive situations than employees in the service industry. The reason for this is because they are on the front lines of the government, and are expected by citizens to serve them quickly and efficiently.

When confronted by a citizen or a co-worker, public administrators use emotional sensing to size up the emotional state of the citizen in need. Workers then take stock of their own emotional state in order to make sure that the emotion they are expressing is appropriate to their roles. Simultaneously, they have to determine how to act in order to elicit the desired response from the citizen as well as from co-workers. According to Mary Guy, Public administration does not only focus on the business side of administration but on the personal side as well. It is not just about collecting the water bill or land ordinances to construct a new property, it is also about the quality of life and sense of community that is allotted to individuals by their city officials.

Rational work is the ability to think cognitively and analytically, while emotional work means to think more practically and with more reason. Knowing how to suppress and manage one's own feelings is known as emotional intelligence. The ability to control one's emotions and to be able to do this at a high level guarantees one's own ability to serve those in need. Emotional intelligence is performed while performing emotional labor, and without one the other can not be there. Macdonald and Sirianni use the term "emotional proletariat" to describe service jobs in which "workers exercise emotional labor wherein they are required to display friendliness and deference to customers.

According to Macdonald and Sirianni , because deference is a characteristic demanded of all those in disadvantaged structural positions, especially women, when deference is made a job requirement, women are likely to be overrepresented in these jobs. Macdonald and Sirianni claim that "[i]n no other area of wage labor are the personal characteristics of the workers so strongly associated with the nature of the work. Emotional labor also affects women by perpetuating occupational segregation and the gender wage gap.

According to Guy and Newman , occupational segregation and ultimately the gender wage gap can at least be partially attributed to emotional labor. Specifically, work-related tasks that require emotional work thought to be natural for women, such as caring and empathizing are requirements of many female-dominated occupations. However, according to Guy and Newman , these feminized work tasks are not a part of formal job descriptions and performance evaluations: "Excluded from job descriptions and performance evaluations, the work is invisible and uncompensated. Public service relies heavily on such skills, yet civil service systems, which are designed on the assumptions of a bygone era, fail to acknowledge and compensate emotional labor.

Positive affective display in service interactions, such as smiling and conveying friendliness, are positively associated with customer positive feelings, [38] and important outcomes, such as intention to return, intention to recommend a store to others, and perception of overall service quality. That is, higher degree of using emotion regulation on the job is related to higher levels of employees' emotional exhaustion, [10] and lower levels of employees' job satisfaction. There is empirical evidence that higher levels of emotional labor demands are not uniformly rewarded with higher wages. Rather, the reward is dependent on the level of general cognitive demands required by the job.

That is, occupations with high cognitive demands evidence wage returns with increasing emotional labor demands; whereas occupations low in cognitive demands evidence a wage "penalty" with increasing emotional labor demands. Coping occurs in response to psychological stress—usually triggered by changes—in an effort to maintain mental health and emotional well-being. Life stressors are often described as negative events loss of a job. However, positive changes in life a new job can also constitute life stressors, thus requiring the use of coping skills to adapt. Coping strategies are the behaviors, thoughts, and emotions that you use to adjust to the changes that occur in your life.

There are many ways to cope and adapt to changes. Some ways include: sharing emotions with peers, having a healthy social life outside of work, being humorous, and adjusting expectations of self and work. These coping skills will help turn negative emotion to positive and allow for more focus on the public in contrast to oneself. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Work managing feelings and expressions. Not to be confused with Emotion work. Affect display Affective labor Compassion fatigue Customer relationship management Display rules Dispositional affect Emotions and culture Group emotion Kinkeeping Marxism Organizational psychology Sexism Smile-mask syndrome Social influence Superficial charm Verbal self defense Vicarious traumatization.

The managed heart: commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. PMID S2CID

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