① Ophelias Foil Characters In Hamlet

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Ophelias Foil Characters In Hamlet



Other scholars consider this inconclusive. One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare's unemployed and pregnant when he Ophelias Foil Characters In Hamlet adept at matching rhetorical Ophelias Foil Characters In Hamlet to characters and Narcissus And Echo Analysis plot. Retrieved 10 December Amsterdam: Harwood Academic P1 explain the function of computer hardware components. The Western Ophelias Foil Characters In Hamlet. Unable to see or hear the ghost herself, Gertrude takes Hamlet's conversation with it as further evidence of madness.

Character Foils in Hamlet

The staging, known as the "G. Olivier does not speak poetry badly. He does not speak it at all. Richard Burton received his third Tony Award nomination when he played his second Hamlet, his first under John Gielgud's direction, in in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history performances. The performance was set on a bare stage, conceived to appear like a dress rehearsal, with Burton in a black v-neck sweater, and Gielgud himself tape-recorded the voice for the ghost which appeared as a looming shadow.

It was immortalised both on record and on a film that played in US theatres for a week in as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L. Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes 's in for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor —which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances. It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means.

Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read Stephen Lang 's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in received mixed reviews [] [] and ran for sixty-one performances. David Warner played the role with the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in The Internet Broadway Database lists sixty-six productions of Hamlet. Fellow actor and friend, Sir Ian McKellen , said that Charleson played Hamlet so well it was as if he had rehearsed the role all his life; McKellen called it "the perfect Hamlet". Hamlet continues to be staged regularly. The production officially opened on 3 June and ran through 22 August In October , a production starring Michael Sheen opened at the Young Vic , in which the play was set inside a psychiatric hospital.

In , American actor Paul Giamatti won mixed reviews for his performance on stage in the title role of Hamlet , performed in modern dress , at the Yale Repertory Theater , at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut [] []. The Globe Theatre of London initiated a project in to perform Hamlet in every country in the world in the space of two years. Titled Globe to Globe Hamlet , it began its tour on 23 April , the th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth, and performed in countries.

Benedict Cumberbatch played the role for a week run in a production at the Barbican Theatre , opening on 25 August It was called the "most in-demand theatre production of all time" and sold out in seven hours after tickets went on sale 11 August , more than a year before the play opened. A Almeida Theatre production, directed by Robert Icke and starring Andrew Scott , was a sold out hit and was transferred that same year to the West End's Harold Pinter Theatre , to five star reviews. Tom Hiddleston played the role for a three-week run at Vanbrugh Theatre that opened on 1 September and was directed by Kenneth Branagh. In , The Globe Theatre 's newly instated artistic director Michelle Terry played the role in a production notable for its gender-blind casting.

The earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt 's five-minute film of the fencing scene, [y] which was produced in The film was an early attempt at combining sound and film , music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film. Laurence Olivier 's moody black-and-white Hamlet won Best Picture and Best Actor Academy Awards , and is, as of [update] , the only Shakespeare film to have done so.

His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, and cast year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet. In , actor Jack Manning performed the play in minute segments over two weeks in the short-lived late night DuMont series Monodrama Theater. A live film of the production was produced using "Electronovision", a method of recording a live performance with multiple video cameras and converting the image to film. In Franco Zeffirelli , whose Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral", [] cast Mel Gibson —then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his version ; Glenn Close —then famous as the psychotic "other woman" in Fatal Attraction —played Gertrude, [] and Paul Scofield played Hamlet's father.

Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and starred in a film version of Hamlet that contained material from the First Folio and the Second Quarto. Branagh's Hamlet runs for just over four hours. The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet 's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick played by Ken Dodd. There have also been several films that transposed the general storyline of Hamlet or elements thereof to other settings. For example, the Bollywood film Haider is an adaptation set in Kashmir. There have been various "derivative works" of Hamlet which recast the story from the point of view of other characters, or transpose the story into a new setting or act as sequels or prequels to Hamlet.

This section is limited to those written for the stage. The best-known is Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead , which retells many of the events of the story from the point of view of the characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and gives them a backstory of their own. Several times since , the American Shakespeare Center has mounted repertories that included both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , with the same actors performing the same roles in each; in their and seasons the two plays were "directed, designed, and rehearsed together to make the most out of the shared scenes and situations".

Gilbert wrote a short comic play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , in which Hamlet's play is presented as a tragedy written by Claudius in his youth of which he is greatly embarrassed. Through the chaos triggered by Hamlet's staging of it, Guildenstern helps Rosencrantz vie with Hamlet to make Ophelia his bride. Lee Blessing 's Fortinbras is a comical sequel to Hamlet in which all the deceased characters come back as ghosts. The New York Times reviewed the play, saying it is "scarcely more than an extended comedy sketch, lacking the portent and linguistic complexity of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead. Fortinbras operates on a far less ambitious plane, but it is a ripping yarn and offers Keith Reddin a role in which he can commit comic mayhem".

Caridad Svich 's 12 Ophelias a play with broken songs includes elements of the story of Hamlet but focuses on Ophelia. In Svich's play, Ophelia is resurrected and rises from a pool of water, after her death in Hamlet. The play is a series of scenes and songs, and was first staged at a public swimming pool in Brooklyn. David Davalos ' Wittenberg is a "tragical-comical-historical" prequel to Hamlet that depicts the Danish prince as a student at Wittenberg University now known as the University of Halle-Wittenberg , where he is torn between the conflicting teachings of his mentors John Faustus and Martin Luther. The New York Times reviewed the play, saying, "Mr.

Davalos has molded a daft campus comedy out of this unlikely convergence," [] and Nytheatre. All references to Hamlet , unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Q2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the play by William Shakespeare. For the type of settlement, see Hamlet place. For other uses, see Hamlet disambiguation. Tragedy by William Shakespeare. Hamlet portrayed by the actor Edwin Booth , c. Hamlet Claudius Gertrude Polonius. Main article: Characters in Hamlet.

Hamlet — son of the late king and nephew of the present king, Claudius Claudius — king of Denmark, Hamlet's uncle and brother to the former king Gertrude — queen of Denmark and Hamlet's mother Polonius — chief counsellor to the king Ophelia — Polonius's daughter Horatio — friend of Hamlet Laertes — Polonius's son Voltimand and Cornelius — courtiers Rosencrantz and Guildenstern — courtiers, friends of Hamlet Osric — a courtier Marcellus — an officer Barnardo — an officer Francisco — a soldier Reynaldo — Polonius's servant Ghost — the ghost of Hamlet's father Fortinbras — prince of Norway Gravediggers — a pair of sextons Player King, Player Queen, Lucianus, etc. Main article: Sources of Hamlet.

Main article: Critical approaches to Hamlet. See also: Literary influence of Hamlet. Main articles: Hamlet in performance and Shakespeare in performance. Main article: Hamlet on screen. See also: Cultural references to Hamlet. However Harold Jenkins, the editor of the second series Arden edition of the play, considers that there are not grounds for thinking that the Ur-Hamlet is an early work by Shakespeare, which he then rewrote. Craig and Stanislavski began planning the production in but, due to a serious illness of Stanislavski's, it was delayed until December In the dark, shadowy foreground, separated by a gauze , Hamlet lay, as if dreaming. On Claudius's exit-line the figures remained but the gauze was loosened, so that they appeared to melt away as if Hamlet's thoughts had turned elsewhere.

For this effect, the scene received an ovation , which was unheard of at the MAT. Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 25 July Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 March The Guardian. Retrieved 4 November Bate, Jonathan ; Rasmussen, Eric, eds. Complete Works. The RSC Shakespeare. New York: Royal Shakespeare Company. ISBN The Royal Shakespeare Company. Edwards, Phillip, ed. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark.

New Cambridge Shakespeare. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Evans, G. Blakemore , ed. The Riverside Shakespeare. Houghton Mifflin for Riverside Shakespeare Company. Hibbard, G. Oxford World's Classics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Irace, Kathleen O. The First Quarto of Hamlet. Jenkins, Harold, ed. The Arden Shakespeare , second series. London: Methuen. Lott, Bernard, ed. New Swan Shakespeare , Advanced series New ed. London: Longman. Thompson, Ann; Taylor, Neil, eds. The Arden Shakespeare , third series. London: Cengage Learning. Hamlet: The Texts of and Wells, Stanley; Taylor, Gary, eds. The Complete Works. The Oxford Shakespeare Compact ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Alexander, Peter Alexander's Introductions to Shakespeare.

London: Collins. OCLC Banham, Martin, ed. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge Guides. Barratt, Mark Ian Mckellen: An Unofficial Biography. Virgin Books. Benedetti, Jean []. Stanislavski: His Life and Art Revised ed. Billington, Michael 4 May Billington, Michael 6 August Bloom, Harold Harlow, Essex: Longman. ISBN X. The Western Canon. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Hamlet: Poem Unlimited. Edinburgh: Canongate. Bloom, Harold ; Foster, Brett, eds. Bloom's Shakespeare through the ages. Bloom's Literary Criticism. Blum, Daniel C. A Pictorial History of the American Theatre, — 5th ed. Crown Publishers. Brandes, Philip 5 July Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 December Braun, Edward Brennan, Sandra The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 February Retrieved 29 May Britton, Celia In Seldon, Raman ed. From Formalism to Poststructuralism. Cambridge History of Literary Criticism. Brode, Douglas New York: Berkley Boulevard Books. Retrieved 18 February Brown, Mark 1 April Retrieved 22 July Brown, Mark 11 April Budd, Susan Rusbridger, Richard ed.

Introducing Psychoanalysis: Essential Themes and Topics. Burian, Jarka []. In Kennedy, Dennis ed. Foreign Shakespeare: Contemporary Performance New ed. Burnett, Mark Thornton Cinema Journal. ISSN JSTOR Burrow, Colin 19 May The Times. Calia, Michael 11 August The Wall Street Journal. Canby, Vincent 3 May Retrieved 21 July Cairncross, Andrew S. Norwood, PA: Norwood Editions. Cartmell, Deborah In Jackson, Russell ed. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Film. Cambridge Companions to Literature. Cecil, William [First published in ]. In Craik, Henry ed. New York: The Macmillan Company. Chambers, E. The Elizabethan Stage.

New York: Oxford University Press. Cotsell, Michael The Theater of Trauma: American modernist drama and the psychological struggle for the American Mind. New York: Peter Lang. Crowl, Samuel Screen Adaptations. Arden Shakespeare. Crystal, David; Crystal, Ben The Shakespeare Miscellany. New York: Penguin. The Daily Mirror. Retrieved 14 July Davies, Anthony Davison, Richard Allan Newark: University of Delaware Press. Dawson, Anthony B. In Wells, Stanley ; Stanton, Sarah eds. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare on Stage. Duncan-Jones, Catherine Ungentle Shakespeare: scenes from his life. London: Arden Shakespeare.

Fine, Marshall 10 April The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 July Fox, Margalit 18 September Retrieved 14 September Freud, Sigmond; Bunker, Henry Alden The Tulane Drama Review. The MIT Press. ISSN X. S2CID Freud, Sigmund []. Richards, Angela ed. The Interpretation of Dreams. The Penguin Freud Library. Translated by Strachey, James. London: Penguin. Brill, A. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud. Translated by Brill, A. New York: The Modern Library. Gardner, Lyn 8 November Gay, Penny Gilbert, W. Foggerty's Fairy: and other tales.

Gertrude interrupts to report that Ophelia has drowned, though it is unclear whether it was suicide or an accident caused by her madness. Horatio has received a letter from Hamlet, explaining that the prince escaped by negotiating with pirates who attempted to attack his England-bound ship, and the friends reunite offstage. Two gravediggers discuss Ophelia's apparent suicide while digging her grave. Hamlet arrives with Horatio and banters with one of the gravediggers, who unearths the skull of a jester from Hamlet's childhood, Yorick.

Hamlet picks up the skull, saying "alas, poor Yorick" as he contemplates mortality. Ophelia's funeral procession approaches, led by Laertes. Hamlet and Horatio initially hide, but when Hamlet realizes that Ophelia is the one being buried, he reveals himself, proclaiming his love for her. Laertes and Hamlet fight by Ophelia's graveside, but the brawl is broken up. Back at Elsinore, Hamlet explains to Horatio that he had discovered Claudius's letter with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern's belongings and replaced it with a forged copy indicating that his former friends should be killed instead.

A foppish courtier, Osric , interrupts the conversation to deliver the fencing challenge to Hamlet. Hamlet, despite Horatio's pleas, accepts it. Hamlet does well at first, leading the match by two hits to none, and Gertrude raises a toast to him using the poisoned glass of wine Claudius had set aside for Hamlet. Claudius tries to stop her but is too late: she drinks, and Laertes realizes the plot will be revealed. Laertes slashes Hamlet with his poisoned blade. In the ensuing scuffle, they switch weapons, and Hamlet wounds Laertes with his own poisoned sword. Gertrude collapses and, claiming she has been poisoned, dies. In his dying moments, Laertes reconciles with Hamlet and reveals Claudius's plan.

Hamlet rushes at Claudius and kills him. As the poison takes effect, Hamlet, hearing that Fortinbras is marching through the area, names the Norwegian prince as his successor. Horatio, distraught at the thought of being the last survivor and living whilst Hamlet does not, says he will commit suicide by drinking the dregs of Gertrude's poisoned wine, but Hamlet begs him to live on and tell his story. Hamlet dies in Horatio's arms, proclaiming "the rest is silence". Fortinbras, who was ostensibly marching towards Poland with his army, arrives at the palace, along with an English ambassador bringing news of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern's deaths. Horatio promises to recount the full story of what happened, and Fortinbras, seeing the entire Danish royal family dead, takes the crown for himself and orders a military funeral to honour Hamlet.

Hamlet -like legends are so widely found for example in Italy, Spain, Scandinavia, Byzantium, and Arabia that the core "hero-as-fool" theme is possibly Indo-European in origin. The first is the anonymous Scandinavian Saga of Hrolf Kraki. In this, the murdered king has two sons— Hroar and Helgi —who spend most of the story in disguise, under false names, rather than feigning madness, in a sequence of events that differs from Shakespeare's.

Its hero, Lucius "shining, light" , changes his name and persona to Brutus "dull, stupid" , playing the role of a fool to avoid the fate of his father and brothers, and eventually slaying his family's killer, King Tarquinius. Similarities include the prince's feigned madness, his accidental killing of the king's counsellor in his mother's bedroom, and the eventual slaying of his uncle. According to one theory, Shakespeare's main source is an earlier play—now lost—known today as the Ur-Hamlet.

Possibly written by Thomas Kyd or even William Shakespeare, the Ur-Hamlet would have existed by , and would have incorporated a ghost. Consequently, there is no direct evidence that Kyd wrote it, nor any evidence that the play was not an early version of Hamlet by Shakespeare himself. This latter idea—placing Hamlet far earlier than the generally accepted date, with a much longer period of development—has attracted some support.

The upshot is that scholars cannot assert with any confidence how much material Shakespeare took from the Ur-Hamlet if it even existed , how much from Belleforest or Saxo, and how much from other contemporary sources such as Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy. No clear evidence exists that Shakespeare made any direct references to Saxo's version. However, elements of Belleforest's version which are not in Saxo's story do appear in Shakespeare's play. Whether Shakespeare took these from Belleforest directly or from the hypothetical Ur-Hamlet remains unclear.

Most scholars reject the idea that Hamlet is in any way connected with Shakespeare's only son, Hamnet Shakespeare , who died in at age eleven. Conventional wisdom holds that Hamlet is too obviously connected to legend, and the name Hamnet was quite popular at the time. He notes that the name of Hamnet Sadler, the Stratford neighbour after whom Hamnet was named, was often written as Hamlet Sadler and that, in the loose orthography of the time, the names were virtually interchangeable. Rowse speculated that Polonius's tedious verbosity might have resembled Burghley's. She believes that the version in the First Quarto Q1 is the one that Thomas Nashe alluded to in , meaning that it was written before this.

The version of Hamlet found in Q1 might thus be Shakespeare's first play. She thinks he made a major revision of this in to produce the version that is found in the First Folio. The version of Hamlet that has later been canonized is a conflation of the versions in the First Folio and the Second Quarto. In , Francis Meres published his Palladis Tamia , a survey of English literature from Chaucer to its present day, within which twelve of Shakespeare's plays are named.

Hamlet is not among them, suggesting that it had not yet been written. As Hamlet was very popular, Bernard Lott, the series editor of New Swan , believes it "unlikely that he [Meres] would have overlooked The phrase "little eyases" [42] in the First Folio F1 may allude to the Children of the Chapel , whose popularity in London forced the Globe company into provincial touring.

A contemporary of Shakespeare's, Gabriel Harvey , wrote a marginal note in his copy of the edition of Chaucer's works, which some scholars use as dating evidence. Harvey's note says that "the wiser sort" enjoy Hamlet , and implies that the Earl of Essex —executed in February for rebellion—was still alive. Other scholars consider this inconclusive. Edwards, for example, concludes that the "sense of time is so confused in Harvey's note that it is really of little use in trying to date Hamlet ". This is because the same note also refers to Spenser and Watson as if they were still alive "our flourishing metricians " , but also mentions " Owen's new epigrams", published in Three early editions of the text have survived, making attempts to establish a single "authentic" text problematic and inconclusive.

Other folios and quartos were subsequently published—including John Smethwick 's Q3, Q4, and Q5 —37 —but these are regarded as derivatives of the first three editions. Early editors of Shakespeare's works , beginning with Nicholas Rowe and Lewis Theobald , combined material from the two earliest sources of Hamlet available at the time, Q2 and F1. Each text contains material that the other lacks, with many minor differences in wording: scarcely lines are identical in the two.

Editors have combined them in an effort to create one "inclusive" text that reflects an imagined "ideal" of Shakespeare's original. Theobald's version became standard for a long time, [52] and his "full text" approach continues to influence editorial practice to the present day. Some contemporary scholarship, however, discounts this approach, instead considering "an authentic Hamlet an unrealisable ideal. Colin Burrow has argued that "most of us should read a text that is made up by conflating all three versions I suspect most people just won't want to read a three-text play Traditionally, editors of Shakespeare's plays have divided them into five acts.

None of the early texts of Hamlet , however, were arranged this way, and the play's division into acts and scenes derives from a quarto. Modern editors generally follow this traditional division but consider it unsatisfactory; for example, after Hamlet drags Polonius's body out of Gertrude's bedchamber, there is an act-break [59] after which the action appears to continue uninterrupted. The discovery in of Q1—whose existence had been quite unsuspected—caused considerable interest and excitement, raising many questions of editorial practice and interpretation. Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean " bad quarto ". The major deficiency of Q1 is in the language: particularly noticeable in the opening lines of the famous " To be, or not to be " soliloquy: "To be, or not to be, aye there's the point.

New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace has noted that "Q1's more linear plot design is certainly easier [ Q1 is considerably shorter than Q2 or F1 and may be a memorial reconstruction of the play as Shakespeare's company performed it, by an actor who played a minor role most likely Marcellus. It is suggested by Irace that Q1 is an abridged version intended especially for travelling productions, thus the question of length may be considered as separate from issues of poor textual quality. Irace, in her introduction to Q1, wrote that "I have avoided as many other alterations as possible, because the differences From the early 17th century, the play was famous for its ghost and vivid dramatisation of melancholy and insanity , leading to a procession of mad courtiers and ladies in Jacobean and Caroline drama.

Before then, he was either mad, or not; either a hero, or not; with no in-betweens. Hamlet departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways. For example, in Shakespeare's day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of Aristotle in his Poetics : that a drama should focus on action, not character. In Hamlet , Shakespeare reverses this so that it is through the soliloquies , not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet's motives and thoughts.

The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action, except in the "bad" quarto. At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene, [a] Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: in the next scene, however, when Claudius appears, he is suddenly tame. Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play's themes of confusion and duality. Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play. The Riverside edition constitutes 4, lines totaling 29, words, typically requiring over four hours to stage. Much of Hamlet ' s language is courtly: elaborate, witty discourse, as recommended by Baldassare Castiglione 's etiquette guide, The Courtier. This work specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language.

Osric and Polonius, especially, seem to respect this injunction. Claudius's speech is rich with rhetorical figures—as is Hamlet's and, at times, Ophelia's—while the language of Horatio, the guards, and the gravediggers is simpler. Claudius's high status is reinforced by using the royal first person plural "we" or "us" , and anaphora mixed with metaphor to resonate with Greek political speeches. Of all the characters, Hamlet has the greatest rhetorical skill. An unusual rhetorical device, hendiadys , appears in several places in the play. Examples are found in Ophelia's speech at the end of the nunnery scene: "Th' expectancy and rose of the fair state" [92] and "And I, of ladies most deject and wretched ".

One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare's life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot. Linguist George T. Wright suggests that hendiadys had been used deliberately to heighten the play's sense of duality and dislocation. She gives the example of Hamlet's advice to Ophelia, "get thee to a nunnery", which is simultaneously a reference to a place of chastity and a slang term for a brothel, reflecting Hamlet's confused feelings about female sexuality. Hamlet's soliloquies have also captured the attention of scholars. Hamlet interrupts himself, vocalising either disgust or agreement with himself and embellishing his own words. He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay.

It is not until late in the play, after his experience with the pirates, that Hamlet is able to articulate his feelings freely. Written at a time of religious upheaval and in the wake of the English Reformation , the play is alternately Catholic or piously medieval and Protestant or consciously modern. The ghost describes himself as being in purgatory and as dying without last rites. This and Ophelia's burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play's Catholic connections.

Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from Catholic countries like Italy and Spain, where the revenge tragedies present contradictions of motives, since according to Catholic doctrine the duty to God and family precedes civil justice. Hamlet's conundrum then is whether to avenge his father and kill Claudius or to leave the vengeance to God, as his religion requires. Much of the play's Protestant tones derive from its setting in Denmark—both then and now a predominantly Protestant country, [l] though it is unclear whether the fictional Denmark of the play is intended to portray this implicit fact. Dialogue refers explicitly to the German city of Wittenberg where Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attend university, implying where the Protestant reformer Martin Luther nailed the Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Hamlet is often perceived as a philosophical character, expounding ideas that are now described as relativist , existentialist , and sceptical.

For example, he expresses a subjectivistic idea when he says to Rosencrantz: "there is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so". Hamlet reflects the contemporary scepticism promoted by the French Renaissance humanist Michel de Montaigne. Hamlet's " What a piece of work is a man " seems to echo many of Montaigne's ideas, and many scholars have discussed whether Shakespeare drew directly from Montaigne or whether both men were simply reacting similarly to the spirit of the times. Freud does not offer over-all interpretations of the plays, but uses the two tragedies to illustrate and corroborate his psychological theories, which are based on his treatments of his patients and on his studies.

Productions of Hamlet have used Freud's ideas to support their own interpretations. He says that "in their amorous or hostile attitude toward their parents" neurotics reveal something that occurs with less intensity "in the minds of the majority of children". Freud explores the reason " Oedipus Rex is capable of moving a modern reader or playgoer no less powerfully than it moved the contemporary Greeks". He suggests that "It may be that we were all destined to direct our first sexual impulses toward our mothers, and our first impulses of hatred and violence toward our fathers. These ideas, which became a cornerstone of Freud's psychological theories, he named the " Oedipus Complex ", and, at one point, he considered calling it the "Hamlet Complex".

Hamlet is able to perform any kind of action except taking revenge on the man who murdered his father and has taken his father's place with his mother—Claudius has led Hamlet to realize the repressed desires of his own childhood. The loathing which was supposed to drive him to revenge is replaced by "self-reproach, by conscientious scruples" which tell him "he himself is no better than the murderer whom he is required to punish". Freud suggests that the character Hamlet goes through an experience that has three characteristics, which he numbered: 1 "the hero is not psychopathic, but becomes so" during the course of the play. The audience identifies with the character of Hamlet, because "we are victims of the same conflict.

Freud points out that Hamlet is an exception in that psychopathic characters are usually ineffective in stage plays; they "become as useless for the stage as they are for life itself", because they do not inspire insight or empathy, unless the audience is familiar with the character's inner conflict. Freud says, "It is thus the task of the dramatist to transport us into the same illness. John Barrymore 's long-running performance in New York , directed by Thomas Hopkins, "broke new ground in its Freudian approach to character", in keeping with the post-World War I rebellion against everything Victorian. Influenced by Jones's psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene", where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light.

Ophelia's madness after her father's death may also be read through the Freudian lens: as a reaction to the death of her hoped-for lover, her father. Ophelia is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity. In the Bloom's Shakespeare Through the Ages volume on Hamlet, editors Bloom and Foster express a conviction that the intentions of Shakespeare in portraying the character of Hamlet in the play exceeded the capacity of the Freudian Oedipus complex to completely encompass the extent of characteristics depicted in Hamlet throughout the tragedy: "For once, Freud regressed in attempting to fasten the Oedipus Complex upon Hamlet: it will not stick, and merely showed that Freud did better than T.

Eliot, who preferred Coriolanus to Hamlet , or so he said. Who can believe Eliot, when he exposes his own Hamlet Complex by declaring the play to be an aesthetic failure? Joshua Rothman has written in The New Yorker that "we tell the story wrong when we say that Freud used the idea of the Oedipus complex to understand Hamlet ". Rothman suggests that "it was the other way around: Hamlet helped Freud understand, and perhaps even invent, psychoanalysis".

He concludes, "The Oedipus complex is a misnomer. It should be called the 'Hamlet complex'. In the s, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan analyzed Hamlet to illustrate some of his concepts. His structuralist theories about Hamlet were first presented in a series of seminars given in Paris and later published in "Desire and the Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet ". Lacan postulated that the human psyche is determined by structures of language and that the linguistic structures of Hamlet shed light on human desire. In the 20th century, feminist critics opened up new approaches to Gertrude and Ophelia.

New Historicist and cultural materialist critics examined the play in its historical context, attempting to piece together its original cultural environment. In this analysis, the essence of Hamlet is the central character's changed perception of his mother as a whore because of her failure to remain faithful to Old Hamlet. In consequence, Hamlet loses his faith in all women, treating Ophelia as if she too were a whore and dishonest with Hamlet. Ophelia, by some critics, can be seen as honest and fair; however, it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since 'fairness' is an outward trait, while 'honesty' is an inward trait.

This analysis has been praised by many feminist critics, combating what is, by Heilbrun's argument, centuries' worth of misinterpretation. By this account, Gertrude's worst crime is of pragmatically marrying her brother-in-law in order to avoid a power vacuum. This is borne out by the fact that King Hamlet's ghost tells Hamlet to leave Gertrude out of Hamlet's revenge, to leave her to heaven, an arbitrary mercy to grant to a conspirator to murder. Ophelia has also been defended by feminist critics, most notably Elaine Showalter.

All three disappear: Laertes leaves, Hamlet abandons her, and Polonius dies. Conventional theories had argued that without these three powerful men making decisions for her, Ophelia is driven into madness. Showalter points out that Ophelia has become the symbol of the distraught and hysterical woman in modern culture. Hamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world's greatest literature.

Academic Laurie Osborne identifies the direct influence of Hamlet in numerous modern narratives, and divides them into four main categories: fictional accounts of the play's composition, simplifications of the story for young readers, stories expanding the role of one or more characters, and narratives featuring performances of the play. English poet John Milton was an early admirer of Shakespeare and took evident inspiration from his work. As John Kerrigan discusses, Milton originally considered writing his epic poem Paradise Lost as a tragedy. As scholar Christopher N. Warren argues, Paradise Lost ' s Satan "undergoes a transformation in the poem from a Hamlet-like avenger into a Claudius-like usurper," a plot device that supports Milton's larger Republican internationalist project.

Henry Fielding 's Tom Jones , published about , describes a visit to Hamlet by Tom Jones and Mr Partridge, with similarities to the "play within a play". When Baum had been touring New York State in the title role, the actor playing the ghost fell through the floorboards, and the rural audience thought it was part of the show and demanded that the actor repeat the fall, because they thought it was funny.

Baum would later recount the actual story in an article, but the short story is told from the point of view of the actor playing the ghost. In the s, James Joyce managed "a more upbeat version" of Hamlet —stripped of obsession and revenge—in Ulysses , though its main parallels are with Homer 's Odyssey. In Angela Carter 's Wise Children , To be or not to be [] is reworked as a song and dance routine, and Iris Murdoch 's The Black Prince has Oedipal themes and murder intertwined with a love affair between a Hamlet -obsessed writer, Bradley Pearson, and the daughter of his rival. There is the story of the woman who read Hamlet for the first time and said, "I don't see why people admire that play so. It is nothing but a bunch of quotations strung together.

The day we see Hamlet die in the theatre, something of him dies for us. He is dethroned by the spectre of an actor, and we shall never be able to keep the usurper out of our dreams. Maurice Maeterlinck in La Jeune Belgique Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the role of Hamlet for Richard Burbage. He was the chief tragedian of the Lord Chamberlain's Men , with a capacious memory for lines and a wide emotional range. Firm evidence for specific early performances of the play is scant. It is sometimes argued that the crew of the ship Red Dragon , anchored off Sierra Leone , performed Hamlet in September ; [] [] [] However, this claim is based on a 19th century insert of a 'lost' passage into a period document, and is today widely regarded as a hoax not to mention the intrinsic unlikelihood of sailors memorising and performing the play.

More credible is that the play toured in Germany within five years of Shakespeare's death; [] and that it was performed before James I in and Charles I in All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government during the Interregnum. The play was revived early in the Restoration. When the existing stock of pre- civil war plays was divided between the two newly created patent theatre companies , Hamlet was the only Shakespearean favourite that Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company secured. Although chided for "acknowledging acquaintances in the audience" and "inadequate memorisation of his lines", he became a national celebrity. Of these, Booth remained to make his career in the States, fathering the nation's most notorious actor, John Wilkes Booth who later assassinated Abraham Lincoln , and its most famous Hamlet, Edwin Booth.

In the United Kingdom, the actor-managers of the Victorian era including Kean, Samuel Phelps , Macready, and Henry Irving staged Shakespeare in a grand manner, with elaborate scenery and costumes. George Bernard Shaw 's praise for Johnston Forbes-Robertson 's performance contains a sideswipe at Irving: "The story of the play was perfectly intelligible, and quite took the attention of the audience off the principal actor at moments.

What is the Lyceum coming to? In London, Edmund Kean was the first Hamlet to abandon the regal finery usually associated with the role in favour of a plain costume, and he is said to have surprised his audience by playing Hamlet as serious and introspective. In contrast to the "effeminate" view of the central character that usually accompanied a female casting, she described her character as "manly and resolute, but nonetheless thoughtful In France, Charles Kemble initiated an enthusiasm for Shakespeare; and leading members of the Romantic movement such as Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas saw his Paris performance of Hamlet , particularly admiring the madness of Harriet Smithson 's Ophelia.

Konstantin Stanislavski and Edward Gordon Craig —two of the 20th century's most influential theatre practitioners —collaborated on the Moscow Art Theatre 's seminal production of — Hamlet is often played with contemporary political overtones. Leopold Jessner 's production at the Berlin Staatstheater portrayed Claudius's court as a parody of the corrupt and fawning court of Kaiser Wilhelm. In this production, the actors playing Hamlet, Claudius and Polonius exchanged roles at crucial moments in the performance, including the moment of Claudius's death, at which point the actor mainly associated with Hamlet fell to the ground. Notable stagings in London and New York include Barrymore's production at the Haymarket ; it influenced subsequent performances by John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier.

The staging, known as the "G. Olivier does not speak poetry badly. He does not speak it at all. Richard Burton received his third Tony Award nomination when he played his second Hamlet, his first under John Gielgud's direction, in in a production that holds the record for the longest run of the play in Broadway history performances. The performance was set on a bare stage, conceived to appear like a dress rehearsal, with Burton in a black v-neck sweater, and Gielgud himself tape-recorded the voice for the ghost which appeared as a looming shadow. It was immortalised both on record and on a film that played in US theatres for a week in as well as being the subject of books written by cast members William Redfield and Richard L.

Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes 's in for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor —which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances. It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means. Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read Stephen Lang 's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in received mixed reviews [] [] and ran for sixty-one performances. David Warner played the role with the Royal Shakespeare Theatre in The Internet Broadway Database lists sixty-six productions of Hamlet.

Fellow actor and friend, Sir Ian McKellen , said that Charleson played Hamlet so well it was as if he had rehearsed the role all his life; McKellen called it "the perfect Hamlet". Hamlet continues to be staged regularly. The production officially opened on 3 June and ran through 22 August In October , a production starring Michael Sheen opened at the Young Vic , in which the play was set inside a psychiatric hospital. In , American actor Paul Giamatti won mixed reviews for his performance on stage in the title role of Hamlet , performed in modern dress , at the Yale Repertory Theater , at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut [] [].

The Globe Theatre of London initiated a project in to perform Hamlet in every country in the world in the space of two years. Titled Globe to Globe Hamlet , it began its tour on 23 April , the th anniversary of Shakespeare's birth, and performed in countries. Benedict Cumberbatch played the role for a week run in a production at the Barbican Theatre , opening on 25 August It was called the "most in-demand theatre production of all time" and sold out in seven hours after tickets went on sale 11 August , more than a year before the play opened. A Almeida Theatre production, directed by Robert Icke and starring Andrew Scott , was a sold out hit and was transferred that same year to the West End's Harold Pinter Theatre , to five star reviews.

Tom Hiddleston played the role for a three-week run at Vanbrugh Theatre that opened on 1 September and was directed by Kenneth Branagh. In , The Globe Theatre 's newly instated artistic director Michelle Terry played the role in a production notable for its gender-blind casting. The earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt 's five-minute film of the fencing scene, [y] which was produced in The film was an early attempt at combining sound and film , music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film. Laurence Olivier 's moody black-and-white Hamlet won Best Picture and Best Actor Academy Awards , and is, as of [update] , the only Shakespeare film to have done so.

His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, and cast year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet. In , actor Jack Manning performed the play in minute segments over two weeks in the short-lived late night DuMont series Monodrama Theater. A live film of the production was produced using "Electronovision", a method of recording a live performance with multiple video cameras and converting the image to film. In Franco Zeffirelli , whose Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral", [] cast Mel Gibson —then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his version ; Glenn Close —then famous as the psychotic "other woman" in Fatal Attraction —played Gertrude, [] and Paul Scofield played Hamlet's father.

Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and starred in a film version of Hamlet that contained material from the First Folio and the Second Quarto. Branagh's Hamlet runs for just over four hours. The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet 's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick played by Ken Dodd. There have also been several films that transposed the general storyline of Hamlet or elements thereof to other settings. For example, the Bollywood film Haider is an adaptation set in Kashmir.

There have been various "derivative works" of Hamlet which recast the story from the point of view of other characters, or transpose the story into a new setting or act as sequels or prequels to Hamlet. This section is limited to those written for the stage. The best-known is Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead , which retells many of the events of the story from the point of view of the characters Rosencrantz and Guildenstern and gives them a backstory of their own.

Several times since , the American Shakespeare Center has mounted repertories that included both Hamlet and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , with the same actors performing the same roles in each; in their and seasons the two plays were "directed, designed, and rehearsed together to make the most out of the shared scenes and situations". Gilbert wrote a short comic play titled Rosencrantz and Guildenstern , in which Hamlet's play is presented as a tragedy written by Claudius in his youth of which he is greatly embarrassed.

Through the chaos triggered by Hamlet's staging of it, Guildenstern helps Rosencrantz vie with Hamlet to make Ophelia his bride. Lee Blessing 's Fortinbras is a comical sequel to Hamlet in which all the deceased characters come back as ghosts. The New York Times reviewed the play, saying it is "scarcely more than an extended comedy sketch, lacking the portent and linguistic complexity of Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead.

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