✯✯✯ P1 Explain The Function Of Computer Hardware Components

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P1 Explain The Function Of Computer Hardware Components

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What is a Computer? Computer Hardware Components Explained - Definitions \u0026 Basics

They take binary data from the CPU and transform it into visual signals which can be outputted to the monitor. Because of the task they perform, GPUs have to be incredibly powerful and often require their own cooling. Top end GPUs can cost into the thousands of pounds. Cooling hardware is standard in most modern machines. Fans help dissipate the heat produced by components such as the aforementioned graphics card, and often work in conjunction with heat-sinks. A heat-sink is normally a large, corrugated piece of metal with a large surface area, used for conducting the heat away from the thermo-sensitive components. A power supply is a critical, yet often overlooked component. The PSU Power Supply Unit provides power to the motherboard and other components that require more power than the motherboard alone can distribute to them.

The PSU contains a transformer which ensures that each component receives only the electricity it requires, as to ensure it is not either overloaded or underpowered. Not all of the hardware exists inside the computer, many important components lie external to the PC, one of which being the monitor. Obviously, a monitor is essential in the use of a computer, as it allows the user to see what is happening on the machine, either through a GUI or CLI. The monitor is connected to the motherboard or GPU, put is powered separately. It duplicates the movements of the users hand on-screen, and enables the user to click buttons, used to navigate menus, access files and actuate buttons. Modern mice use lasers to detect the movement of a surface underneath them and feed this information to the computer.

A keyboard is another essential component for computers, enabling the user to effectively interface with the computer. Each key on the keyboard is assigned a corresponding code on the computer, so that when the keyboard tells the computer which key was pressed, a corresponding action or letter appears on screen. Subscribe to: Posts Atom. Low-quality power supply manufacturers sometimes take advantage of this overspecification by assigning unrealistically high power supply ratings, knowing that very few customers fully understand power supply ratings. Older CPUs and logic devices on the motherboard were designed for 5 V operating voltage.

Power supplies for those computers regulate the 5 V output precisely, and supply the 12 V rail in a specified voltage window depending on the load ratio of both rails. A further use of the 12 V came with the sound cards, using linear chip audio power amplifiers , sometimes filtered by a 9 V linear regulator on the card to cut the noise of the motors. Since certain variants, CPUs use lower operating voltages such as 3. Motherboards had linear voltage regulators, supplied by the 5 V rail. Jumpers or dip switches set the output voltages to the installed CPU's specification.

When newer CPUs required higher currents, switching mode voltage regulators like buck converters replaced linear regulators for efficiency. Rarely, a linear regulator generated these 3. In the most common design this voltage is generated by shifting and transforming the pulses of the 5 V rail on an additional choke , causing the voltage to rise delayed and rectified separately into a dedicated 3. Later regulators managed all the 3. Cutting the pulse by the voltage regulator the ratio of the 3. Some of these PSUs use two different chokes, feeding to the 3.

In designs using identical chokes, the pulse width manages the ratio. Voltage drop on connectors forced the designers to place such buck converters next to the device. Higher maximum power consumption required the buck converters no longer fed from the 5 V and changed to a 12 V input, to decrease the current required from the power supply. The latest specification is v2. The EPS standard provides a more powerful and stable environment for critical server-based systems and applications.

EPS power supplies are in principle compatible with standard ATX or ATX12V motherboards found in homes and offices but there may be mechanical issues where the 12 V connector and in the case of older boards connector overhang the sockets. As power supply capacity increased, the ATX power supply standard was amended beginning with version 2. The requirement was later deleted from version 2. The rule was intended to set a safe limit on the current able to pass through any single output wire. A sufficiently large current can cause serious damage in the event of a short circuit , or can melt the wire or its insulation in the case of a fault, or potentially start a fire or damage other components.

The rule limits each output to below 20 amps , with typical supplies guaranteeing 18 A availability. Power supplies capable of delivering more than 18 A at 12 V would provide their output in groups of cables called "rails". Each rail delivers up to a limited amount of current through one or more cables, and each rail is independently controlled by its own current sensor which shuts down the supply upon excess current. Unlike a fuse or circuit breaker , these limits reset as soon as the overload is removed. Typically, a power supply will guarantee at least 17 A at 12 V by having a current limit of Thus, it is guaranteed to supply at least 17 A, and guaranteed to cut off before 20 A.

The current limits for each group of cables is then documented so the user can avoid placing too many high-current loads in the same group. Originally at the time of ATX 2. When the assignment of connectors to rails is done at manufacturing time it is not always possible to move a given load to a different rail or manage the allocation of current across devices. Rather than add more current limit circuits, many manufacturers chose to ignore the requirement and increase the current limits above 20 A per rail, or provided "single-rail" power supplies that omit the current limit circuitry. In some cases, in violation of their own advertising claims to include it.

The requirement was withdrawn as a result, however, the issue left its mark on PSU designs, which can be categorized into single rail and multiple rail designs. Both may and often do contain current limiting controllers. As of ATX 2. A multiple rail design does the same, but limits the current supplied to each individual connector or group of connectors , and the limits it imposes are the manufacturer's choice rather than set by the ATX standard.

Since , Fujitsu and other tier-1 manufacturers [15] have been manufacturing systems containing motherboard variants that require only a 12 V supply from a custom-made PSU, which is typically rated at — W. DC-to-DC conversion , providing 5 V and 3. The reasons given for this approach to power supply are that it eliminates cross-load problems, simplifies and reduces internal wiring that can affect airflow and cooling, reduces costs, increases power supply efficiency, and reduces noise by bringing the power supply fan speed under the control of the motherboard.

According to the Single Rail Power Supply ATX12VO design guide officially published by Intel in May , the guide listed the details of 12V only design and the major benefit which included higher efficiency and lower electrical interruption. The overall power draw on a PSU is limited by the fact that all of the supply rails come through one transformer and any of its primary side circuitry, like switching components. Total power requirements for a personal computer may range from W to more than W for a high-performance computer with multiple graphics cards. Personal computers without especially high performing CPUs or graphics cards usually require to W.

This protects against system performance degradation, and against power supply overloading. Power supplies label their total power output, and label how this is determined by the electric current limits for each of the voltages supplied. Some power supplies have no-overload protection. The system power consumption is a sum of the power ratings for all of the components of the computer system that draw on the power supply. Some graphics cards especially multiple cards and large groups of hard drives can place very heavy demands on the 12v lines of the PSU, and for these loads, the PSU's 12 V rating is crucial. The total 12 V rating on the power supply must be higher than the current required by such devices so that the PSU can fully serve the system when its other 12 V system components are taken into account.

The manufacturers of these computer system components, especially graphics cards, tend to over-rate their power requirements, to minimize support issues due to too low of a power supply. Various initiatives exist to improve the efficiency of computer power supplies. Climate Savers Computing Initiative promotes energy saving and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by encouraging development and use of more efficient power supplies. Efficient power supplies also save money by wasting less power; as a result, they use less electricity to power the same computer, and they emit less waste heat which results significant energy savings on central air conditioning in the summer.

The gains of using an efficient power supply are more substantial in computers that use a lot of power. Although a power supply with a larger than needed power rating will have an extra margin of safety against overloading, such a unit is often less efficient and wastes more electricity at lower loads than a more appropriately sized unit. A power supply that is self-certified by its manufacturer may claim output ratings double or more than what is actually provided. Many power supplies create their 3. The two rails involved are labeled on the power supply with a combined current limit. For example, the 5 V and 3. For a description of the potential problem, a 3.

In this case, loading the 3. The energy efficiency of a power supply drops significantly at low loads. Therefore, it is important to match the capacity of a power supply to the power needs of the computer. The curve varies from model to model examples of how this curve looks can be seen on test reports of energy-efficient models found on the 80 Plus website. Most desktop personal computer power supplies are a square metal box, and have a large bundle of wires emerging from one end. Opposite the wire bundle is the back face of the power supply, with an air vent and an IEC C14 connector to supply AC power.

Historically they were mounted on the upper part of the computer case, and had two fans: one, inside the case, pulling air towards the power supply, and another, extracting air from the power supply to the outside. Many power supplies have a single large fan inside the case, and are mounted on the bottom part of the case. The fan may be always on, or turn on and vary its speed depending on the load. Some have no fans, and so are cooled completely passively.

A label on one side of the box lists technical information about the power supply, including safety certifications and maximum output power. The CE mark is required for power supplies sold in Europe and India. A RoHS or 80 Plus can also sometimes be seen. Dimensions of an ATX power supply are mm width, 86 mm height, and typically mm depth, although the depth can vary from brand to brand. Some power supplies come with sleeved cables, which besides being more aesthetically pleasing, also make wiring easier and have a less detrimental effect on airflow. A modular power supply provides a detachable cable system, offering the ability to remove unused connections at the expense of a small amount of extra electrical resistance introduced by the additional connector.

Many semi modular supplies have some permanent multi-wire cables with connectors at the ends, such as ATX motherboard and 8-pin EPS , though newer supplies marketed as "fully modular" allow even these to be disconnected. The pin assignment of the detachable cables is only standardized on the output end and not on the end that is to be connected to the power supply. Thus, the cables of a modular power supply must only be used with this particular modular power supply model. Usage with another modular power supply, even if the cable prima facie appear compatible, might result in a wrong pin assignment and thus can lead to damage of connected components by supplying 12V to a 5V or 3. The low profile of the power supply fits easily into these systems.

The long narrow profile of the power supply fits easily into low profile systems. The cooling fan placement can be used to efficiently exhaust air from the processor and core area of the motherboard, making possible smaller, more efficient systems using common industry components. Most portable computers have power supplies that provide 25 to W. In portable computers such as laptops there is usually an external power supply sometimes referred to as a "power brick" due to its similarity, in size, shape and weight, to a real brick which converts AC power to one DC voltage most commonly 19 V , and further DC-DC conversion occurs within the laptop to supply the various DC voltages required by the other components of the portable computer.

External power supply could send data about itself power, current and voltage ratings to the computer. For example, genuine Dell power source uses 1-Wire protocol to send data by third wire to the laptop. The laptop then refuses a non-matching adapter. Some computers use a single-voltage 12 V power supply. All other voltages are generated by voltage regulator modules on the motherboard. Using higher quality electrical components at less than their maximum ratings or providing better cooling can contribute to a higher MTBF rating because lower stress and lower operating temperatures decrease component failure rates. A 'power supply tester' is a tool used to test the functionality of a computer's power supply.

P1 explain the function of computer hardware components input unit takes the input, Power In Kurt Vonneguts Miss Temptation central processing unit does the processing of data p1 explain the function of computer hardware components the output unit produces the output. This standby voltage may p1 explain the function of computer hardware components generated by a small linear power supply inside the unit or a switching power supply, sharing some components with the main unit to save cost and energy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.