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The Ugly Truth Of Being Extremely Lean *my experience*
Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 25 August PC World. Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 17 May Storage Magazine. Archived from the original on 9 April Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 25 January Archived from the original on 18 May Forbes Magazine. December 20, Flash memory should continue price decreases again starting in , but HDDs should be able to continue to maintain something like a 10X difference in raw capacity prices out into the next decade March 13, ZD Net. February 25, Retrieved September 20, SSDs fail differently than disks - and in a dangerous way.
Corporate-grade SSD uses single-level cell SLC NAND memory and multiple channels to increase data throughput and wear-leveling software to ensure data is distributed evenly in the drive rather than wearing out one group of cells over another. And, while some consumer-grade SSD is just now beginning to incorporate the latter features p. SLC generally endures up to , write cycles or writes per cell, while MLC can endure anywhere from 1, to 10, writes before it begins to fail, [according to Fujitsu's vice president of business development Joel Hagberg] p. Ku, Andrew 6 February Sigmetrics : — S2CID Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 29 November Legit Reviews. September 21, The New York Times. Using a standard Macintosh performance measurement utility called Xbench, the Intel solid-state drive increased the computer's overall performance by almost half.
Drive performance increased fivefold. Archived from the original on 6 December The Tech Report. Retrieved 30 November Registration required. New York Data Recovery. Archived PDF from the original on 5 December Scott Hanselman's blog. Archived from the original on 22 December David Berndtsson. Retrieved 18 July SSD Sphere. Archived from the original on 9 December The Data Rescue Center. Digital Trends. May 21, Archived PDF from the original on December 21, Retrieved December 4, Hitachi Deskstar drive can be mounted with any side or end vertical or horizontal. Do not mount the drive in a tilted position. IDG Communications. PC Perspective.
Retrieved February 13, The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture. Windows internals 5th ed. Microsoft Press. Optional multiqueue SCSI support". Archived from the original PDF on July 28, Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved January 22, Engineering Windows 7. Archived from the original on 20 May Archived from the original on 23 July Archived from the original on 27 July Future Publishing.
Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 12 March Sun Microsystem blog. Retrieved 25 November Archived from the original on 28 March IT PRO. Apple Inc. Sun Microsystems. Archived from the original on 24 September Archived from the original on 2 September CNET News. Apple, Inc. Archived from the original on 13 August Retrieved 13 August March 27, Archived from the original on May 3, Network World. This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines.
Please improve this article by removing excessive or inappropriate external links, and converting useful links where appropriate into footnote references. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Electronics portal Technology portal. Solid-state drives. List of solid-state drive manufacturers. Basic computer components. Categories : 20th-century inventions Computer storage devices Non-volatile memory Solid-state computer storage Solid-state computer storage media. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons.
Storage Technology Corporation. Readto-one,  Write: to-one . SSDs generally are more expensive than HDDs and expected to remain so into the next decade [ needs update ]. If left without power, worn out SSDs typically start to lose data after about one to two years in storage, depending on temperature. New drives are supposed to retain data for about ten years. SSDs are not suited for archival use. If kept in a dry environment at low temperatures, HDDs can retain their data for a very long period of time even without power. However, the mechanical parts tend to become clotted over time and the drive fails to spin up after a few years in storage.
Reliability — longevity. However, in practice this is unclear,  Each block of a flash-based SSD can only be erased and therefore written a limited number of times before it fails. HDDs have moving parts, and are subject to potential mechanical failures from the resulting wear and tear so in theory, should be less reliable than SSDs. However, in practice this is unclear,  The storage medium itself magnetic platter does not essentially degrade from reading and write operations. Almost instantaneous; no mechanical components to prepare. May need a few milliseconds to come out of an automatic power-saving mode.
Drive spin-up may take several seconds. A system with many drives may need to stagger spin-up to limit peak power drawn, which is briefly high when an HDD is first started. Enterprise SSDs can have multi-gigabyte per second throughput. Data transfer rate depends also upon rotational speed, which can range from 3, to 15, rpm  and also upon the track reading from the outer tracks is faster. Random access performance . Random access time typically under 0. Read performance does not change based on where data is stored.
In applications, where hard disk drive seeks are the limiting factor, this results in faster boot and application launch times see Amdahl's law. Read latency time is much higher than SSDs. If data from different areas of the platter must be accessed, as with fragmented files, response times will be increased by the need to seek each fragment. Impact of file system fragmentation. There is limited benefit to reading data sequentially beyond typical FS block sizes, say 4 KiB , making fragmentation negligible for SSDs.
Defragmentation would cause wear by making additional writes of the NAND flash cells, which have a limited cycle life. Some file systems, like NTFS , become fragmented over time if frequently written; periodic defragmentation is required to maintain optimum performance. Noise acoustic . SSDs have no moving parts and therefore are silent, although, on some SSDs, high pitch noise from the high voltage generator for erasing blocks may occur. HDDs have moving parts heads , actuator , and spindle motor and make characteristic sounds of whirring and clicking; noise levels vary depending on the RPM, but can be significant while often much lower than the sound from the cooling fans.
Laptop hard drives are relatively quiet. Temperature control . However, this was not the case with newer drives that employ thermal throttling , albeit at a potential cost to performance. High-end enterprise models installed as add-on cards or 2. Fan cooling may be required if temperatures would otherwise exceed these values. Lowest operating temperature . Highest altitude when operating . SSDs have no issues on this. HDDs can operate safely at an altitude of at most 3, meters 10, ft.
HDDs will fail to operate at altitudes above 12, meters 40, ft. SSDs have no issues with this. Due to the thermal throttling mechanism SSDs are kept secure and prevented from the temperature imbalance. Most modern HDDs require a breather hole in order to function properly. Susceptibility to environmental factors   . No moving parts, very resistant to shock , vibration, movement, and contamination. Heads flying above rapidly rotating platters are susceptible to shock, vibration, movement, and contamination which could damage the medium.
Not sensitive to orientation, vibration, or shock. Usually no exposed circuitry. Circuitry may be exposed in a card form device and it must not be short-circuited by conductive materials. Circuitry may be exposed, and it must not be short-circuited by conductive materials such as the metal chassis of a computer. Should be mounted to protect against vibration and shock. Some HDDs should not be installed in a tilted position. Low impact on flash memory, but an electromagnetic pulse will damage any electrical system, especially integrated circuits.
In general, magnets or magnetic surges may result in data corruption or mechanical damage to the drive internals. Drive's metal case provides a low level of shielding to the magnetic platters. Weight and size . SSDs, essentially semiconductor memory devices mounted on a circuit board, are small and lightweight. They often follow the same form factors as HDDs 2. The enclosures on most mainstream models, if any, are made mostly of plastic or lightweight metal. When optimizing your build, it is hugely important for a necromancer to know what he's facing.
This is because most playstyles of the necromancer are very conditional. For example: a minion master can be both a decimating offensive and defensive force, but if there are few or no corpses available in the area, they will quickly find themselves useless and vulnerable. Knowing your playstyle's strengths, weaknesses and what you're up against is the key part of being a necromancer.
These will also be the ones you will be asked to play most frequently by other party members. A minion master is comprised of a few Animate skills under Death Magic and uses other spells to keep their minions alive or to deal more damage. See minion master for more specific details. A Spiteful Spirit Necromancer is commonly used to deal large amounts of AoE damage against several foes. The builds used by teammates most notably monks and elementalists tend to be very energy intensive.
Using the skill Blood is Power , a BiP can keep up the energy of an entire team indefinitely. The downside of the skill being the health sacrifice is commonly countered by lowering the maximum Hp to 55 or even 1 in which case no health will be sacrificed at all. Obviously, a BiP necromancer will stay far behind his team. It is important to note that in a team formation, the necromancer should be either in the middle line with casters, paragons, etc ; or in the very back line behind monks in the case of a BiP Necromancer.
Necromancers should never lead the frontline of teams by pulling aggro or by being a tank. Solo necromancer play will vary with secondary professions. In PvP, necromancers are commonly used to spread massive health degeneration to the other team using such skills as Lingering Curse and Suffering. Necromancers are commonly used as a form of defense by causing massive pressure through degeneration, moderate damage or adding to the pressure of the enemy monks. They can also be used in offensive builds such as blood spike. Blood spike builds usually consist of many necromancers with a monk backline to heal, and sometimes a flag runner. They are commonly used in GvG due to the mechanic of Life Stealing and nullifying the opposing teams Protection Prayers monk.
With the enemy team only having one healer, they usually collapse to the pressure of the many self-sufficient necromancers. Necromancers have several PvP strong skills. Wail of Doom can hinder powerful spells to deal very little damage, and high healing spells to heal for almost nothing. Depending on how you play, your survival strategy will be vastly different. For example while using blood magic and curses, using skills like Enfeeble and Faintheartedness to lower the damage of enemy attackers and then using life stealing skills to regain health is one way. When playing as a Minion Master you can use your minions as a shield, such as physically blocking melee fighters with numerous melee minions and using skills such as Dark Bond to migrate damage to your minions, and skills from your secondary profession to heal yourself.
Try to stay out of harm by means of kiting. When using standard armor without increased armor rating, it is advised to avoid getting attacked directly. Because they are easily manipulated to attach recognition molecules antibodies, enzymes, proteins, nucleic acids, etc. Unlike protein or metabolite-based POC tests, one of the major challenges for nucleic acid-based POC tests is the need to consolidate three distinct protocol procedures into a single device: 1 nucleic acid extraction; 2 amplification; and 3 detection.
Development of a nucleic-based testing device that is specific, sensitive, portable, and relatively easy to operate has presented several challenges that have been elegantly reviewed elsewhere [ 90 ]. Development of an ideal NAE method for POC is impaired by many factors and researchers are still in quest for a suitable solution. However, neither method is yet good enough for widespread implementation in POC-Dx methods. Solid-phase extraction depends on centrifugation, while magnetic beads require an external magnet source for mixing.
In this aspect, magnetic beads are favored because implementation of magnetic stirring in POC-Dx devices is somewhat easier than implementation of separation through stationary membranes. Although both rely on the use of chaotropic reagents for lysing cells and releasing the NA from the scaffold and structural nucleic proteins, washing steps are more efficient in beads-based methods. The main challenges in implementing molecular biology-based systems in resource-constrained areas are the high cost of instrument and reagents, as well as lack of reliable infrastructure and continuous maintenance support and temperature maintenance devices [ 88 ].
Proper disposal of biological waste generated by medical tests is also a concern, not to mention that some waste is chemical and requires special treatment before disposal e. After almost years after the first successful isolation of DNA by Friedrich Miescher, nucleic acids are now central to obtaining biological information in areas as distinct as specimens' identification for conservational purposes to the realms of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics. Protocols and devices used for NAE have evolved from thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform manual techniques to user-friendly column-technology and automated platforms, but no general gold-standard method has yet been established.
This review analyzed the working principle of each available method, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. The take-home message is that each application has specific characteristics, which should then guide each researcher to the most suitable method. Although molecular biology techniques are sensitive and accurate methods, they require a rather well established laboratory setting and expensive instruments, as well as skilled personnel to run the tests and analyze the results, which are not always available. In the last years, lab-on-chip technology has brought the promise of taking the management of biological information where it is needed, such as low-resource settings, a doctor's clinic or a hospital patient bedside.
However, although progress has been made, several obstacles still hamper the use of NAE protocols in POC-Dx tests, as it can be seen by the low number of products using lab-on-chip technology. Overcoming the challenges and limitations of NAE protocols will greatly increase the use of molecular biology techniques and thus increase the overall quality of life of the general population by providing access to better diagnostic tests. The authors are grateful to Dr. Marchini and Dr. Adriana C. Umaki for critical reading of the manuscript. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Biomed Res Int v. Biomed Res Int. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 31; Accepted Jun 5. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Nucleic acid extraction NAE plays a vital role in molecular biology as the primary step for many downstream applications. Introduction Nucleic acid extraction NAE is one of the most pivotal steps in molecular biology, being routinely used in many areas of the biological and medical sciences, as this procedure marks a starting point in any molecular diagnostic kit [ 1 ].
Table 1 Main characteristics of chemical and mechanical methods to extract nucleic acid adapted from Harrison Open in a separate window. Chemically Driven Methods These methods rely on biochemical properties of the cellular components to elicit the desired molecular separation and might exhibit preference or exclusivity in extracting DNA or RNA, depending on its intrinsic characteristics. Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide CTAB Extraction Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction method is mainly used for plant samples and their parts, such as leaves, seeds, and grains. Table 2 Summary of advantages and disadvantages of the main NAE methods.
Silica Matrices In , it was found that silicates have high binding affinity for DNA under alkaline conditions and increased salt concentration [ 44 ]. Glass Particles Glass particles, whether in powder as chromatography stationary phase or in microbeads form, have also been used for extraction of nucleic acids. Cellulose Matrix Absorbent cellulose-based paper is an interesting matrix for nucleic acids purification and storage. Table 3 Summary of the advantages and disadvantages of solid-phase extraction methods.
Table 4 Examples of commercially available kits applying each extraction method and typical yields for distinct samples. Devices Used in Extraction Methods 4. Spin Columns The binding element in spin-column systems is usually composed of glass particles or powder, silica matrices, diatomaceous earth, and ion exchange carriers. Beads or Magnetic Beads Magnetic particle or beads are the first option to eliminate centrifuge-dependent steps in the extraction process. Automation Liquid Handling Robots The increase in growth of diagnostic tests and patient numbers highlights the need for automation in life sciences [ 85 ]. Table 5 Summary of available devices used in nucleic acid extraction protocols. Limitations for Implementation of Extraction Protocols in Portable Devices A major obstruction for the development of a complete and easy-to-use solution for POC-Dx is the integration of sample preparation protocols into the portable devices.
Table 6 Chemical compatibility of various chemicals used in nucleic acid extraction procedures and plastic polymers commonly used in microfabrication. Challenges for Implementation in POC Diagnostic Tests Lessons learned from previous attempts in developing diagnostic tests have taught us that availability of the best possible POC-Dx test is not enough. Conclusion After almost years after the first successful isolation of DNA by Friedrich Miescher, nucleic acids are now central to obtaining biological information in areas as distinct as specimens' identification for conservational purposes to the realms of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics.
Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Dr. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. References 1. Tan S. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. Doyle K. Lesk A. Journal of Theoretical Biology. Chacon-cortes D. Methods for extracting genomic DNA from whole blood samples: current perspectives. Journal of Biorepository Science for Applied Medicine. Price C. Nucleic acid extraction techniques and application to the microchip. Lab on a Chip—Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology. Goldberg S. Methods in Molecular Biology.
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