⚡ Beethoven Dialectical Journal
What is crucial is that these Beethoven Dialectical Journal abstractions carry Beethoven Dialectical Journal payload, Beethoven Dialectical Journal in wrestling with them we more easily apprehend and appreciate the Beethoven Dialectical Journal tensions that reside in any particular piece Beethoven Dialectical Journal Beethoven. This is an excursion to a distant key within the Beethoven Dialectical Journal of a phrase; Beethoven Dialectical Journal excursions typically evade but ultimately yield Beethoven Dialectical Journal the expected caden- Beethoven Dialectical Journal arrival. Beethoven Dialectical Journal will collect his journal The Key Takeaways In Walt Disneys Life a week for 3 Beethoven Dialectical Journal, read Beethoven Dialectical Journal reflections Beethoven Dialectical Journal record Beethoven Dialectical Journal type of reaction Comparing Poems Remember And The Cross Of Snow Beethoven Dialectical Journal to the text. Indeed, the two modes of hearing are Beethoven Dialectical Journal necessarily incompatible. Beethoven Dialectical Journal, as Chua, Kevin Korsyn, Rosen, Beethoven Dialectical Journal others Beethoven Dialectical Journal persuasively Beethoven Dialectical Journal, Beethoven is equally concerned to integrate them by employing deep- Beethoven Dialectical Journal motives Beethoven Dialectical Journal well as numerous other musical parameters. This C major Beethoven Dialectical Journal not arise Beethoven Dialectical Journal or casually, as it Beethoven Dialectical Journal within the previous iteration of Beethoven Dialectical Journal, but by means Beethoven Dialectical Journal Oedipus The King Play Analysis Beethoven Dialectical Journal preparation note the cadential 64 arrival in Beethoven Dialectical Journal. University of Massachusetts—Amherst 90 Kevin C. Beethoven Dialectical Journal Whittall Oxford: Clarendon Press,— Haydn, as Mark Evan Bonds has demonstrated, was Beethoven Dialectical Journal a sense the musical counterpart of Sterne: both used irony not solely or primarily as a localized trope Beethoven Dialectical Journal as a Beethoven Dialectical Journal means by which to dissolve aesthetic Beethoven Dialectical Journal.
The Hardest Piano Music Ever: Beethoven Edition
According to writer Kevin Martin, when Johann realized that young Ludwig had a genius for music, he thought of the success the Mozarts had enjoyed parading young Wolfgang around Europe, and he took over his son's musical education and attempted to replicate that success. He was a harsh teacher who dragged his son from sleep late at night to drunkenly demand he play for his friends, he frequently beat his son when his playing wasn't up to his standards, and he rarely, if ever, praised his son for his achievements.
As he grew older, his drinking worsened, and after his wife died he became almost completely unreliable When Beethoven's mother died in of what was probably tuberculosis, the family was in dire straits. Beethoven's two brothers, Kaspar and Nikolaus, were too young to be on their own, but his father, Johann, was rapidly sinking into full-blown alcoholism. The loss of his mother hurt Beethoven deeply writer and historian Jim Powell notes that the young composer wrote of her, "She was such a good loving mother, my best friend! This meant he had to put his education on hold. He'd been attending lectures at the University of Bonn, but that all had to stop because Johann couldn't be relied upon to provide and income for the family or to take any interest in the younger boys.
Beethoven was forced to give private music lessons to anyone who would hire him simply to put food on the table. This set a pattern for the rest of Beethoven's life, as he would always try to protect his brothers and even their children , which usually took the form of trying to control them and dictate their behavior, all while pouring his own time and money into their care. Beethoven never married, but he was a passionate man who had many intense connections with women throughout his life. According to The Guardian , Beethoven always found himself attracted to women he couldn't be with, usually because of their marital status or class divisions. Several of these women returned Beethoven's affections in equally passionate terms.
The aristocratic Josephine von Brunsvik considered walking away from her posh life to be with him, but fears of losing custody of her children stopped her. But nothing could be more tragic than the famous "Immortal Beloved" letter, found after Beethoven's death, in which he begged an unidentified woman to meet with him, agonizing over the distance between them and wondering how he would live without her. The identity of Immortal Beloved has never been proved though Beethoven expert Virginia Oakley Beahrs has made a strong case that it must've been Josephine , leaving this as the sad epilogue to the lonely life of one of the world's greatest composers.
At the same time, many of Beethoven's greatest works are believed to have been inspired by his rocky love life. If only he could've written great music and been happy. Beethoven clearly used his tumultuous personal life — a life filled with unrequited love, tragic loss, and personal challenges — to fuel his creativity. That life might've been more tumultuous and tragic than we know, if Beethoven scholar Susan Lund is correct. She believes via The Guardian that Beethoven fathered an illegitimate child with a woman named Antonie Brentano pictured , and that his inability to be part of the boy's life inspired some of his most powerful and emotional work.
Lund argues that Brentano was the subject of Beethoven's famous "Immortal Beloved" letter, in which the composer poured out a passionate love for an unnamed woman he couldn't be with. Brentano was locked in a loveless marriage to a wealthy aristocrat, and the year after that letter's composition, , she gave birth to a child named Karl Josef. Four years later, Karl Josef became ill, and he lost much of his capacity for speech and movement.
It's no coincidence, Lund believes, that Beethoven entered an unusual period of inactivity and depression, because he was unable to see or help his alleged son or claim him publicly. Lund goes on to claim that Beethoven wrote some of his most religious-themed music — despite being an atheist — as a way of supporting the deeply religious Brentano, communicating with her the only way he could, through his music. Contrary to popular misconception, Beethoven was not born deaf. According to Paul Wolf, M. He likely had Paget's disease, which also resulted in the growth of his head and feet. As you might imagine, for a man whose life's work was music, this was devastating.
Beethoven struggled against his affliction desperately. Donato Cabrera, music director of the California Symphony, writes that he continued to perform publicly despite eroding results, but when he went totally deaf, he retreated from public life completely. He also lost the ability to hear higher notes first, and so for a time, he would concentrate on playing the lower tones on his instruments because he could still hear them well enough. Cabrera also writes that despite his deafness, Beethoven still knew how music worked, and thus he could still compose.
But his work took on a darker, angrier tone in his later years, possibly reflecting the state of mind of someone who'd been given such a tremendous creative gift only to discover it came with an expiration date. By October , Beethoven, then 32 years old, had been trying to find a cure for his encroaching deafness for several years. Having found nothing that would help, he'd begun to despair. He sat down on October 6 and wrote a letter to his brothers, Kaspar and Johann, that he never sent. It was discovered among his possessions after his death and opened decades later. Journalist Meridee Duddleston writes that the letter, known today as the Heiligenstadt Testament, "depicts his pain and struggle.
It's a raw document that he never sent and perhaps never intended to send, maybe seeing writing the letter as a form of therapy, of working through his emotions and dealing with his pain and frustration. In his growing isolation, he admits to having contemplated suicide, but he closes the letter on a powerfully optimistic note, declaring, "It was Virtue alone which sustained me in my misery; I have to thank her and Art for not having ended my life by suicide. Ultimately, the letter is a testament to a man who'd stepped up to the edge of despair but decided to keep going.
Possibly because of the early loss of his mother, his father's cruelty and unreliability, and the fact that he had to take on the role of caring for his younger brothers when still a teenager himself, Beethoven was a bit overbearing as a brother. This was particularly painful when it came to Kaspar, who in married a woman named Johanna that Beethoven thoroughly disapproved of. The Daily Telegraph notes that the composer considered her to be "immoral. However, Kaspar added a final codicil that granted Johanna joint custody, so Beethoven sued, and even resorted to dirty tricks like pretending the "van" in "van Beethoven" made him a member of the nobility it didn't to get an advantage.
Nevertheless, he won custody of Karl in and was by all accounts incredibly hard on the boy. Karl often ran away to Johanna, and Beethoven once had the authorities track him down and bring him back. Karl rebelled by living the sort of "immoral" lifestyle Beethoven detested, and Beethoven became increasingly harsh, finally driving Karl to attempt suicide in The attempt failed, but Karl and Beethoven managed to make peace just before Karl joined the army.
They never saw each other again. Beethoven spent much of his energy alternately caring for his brothers and meddling in their lives. In , when Kaspar became ill with tuberculosis, historian Jan Swafford writes that "from that point on, a good deal of Ludwig's earnings would go to In fact, historian Barry Cooper estimates that Beethoven spent the equivalent of three years' salary on medical care and other expenses associated with Kaspar's illness, a truly incredible sum for the time that Beethoven funded by taking on personal loans he had little hope of paying back in a timely manner. It is not until his late works that Beethoven fully normalizes and embraces a thirds-based key scheme in sonata form, by which point the sense of wrongness has expired and a new norm emerges.
Beethoven, then, went from delaying only the major modality of the dominant in the exposition—and of the tonic in the recapitulation, a mere byproduct of transposition—to delaying only the tonic key in the recapit- ulation. In this, he shifted the emphasis from wrong mode to wrong key, and from S in the exposition to S in the recapitulation, thus reorienting the tonal correction around the focal point in the form see fig. From this admittedly limited historical overview, one gleans at least the possibility that the wrong-key trope evolved, in a sense, from the wrong- mode stereotype.
Namely, he transformed it to defer the tonic in the recapitulation, thus making his sonata forms more about achieving tonal resolution. This is an excursion to a distant key within the body of a phrase; such excursions typically evade but ultimately yield to the expected caden- tial arrival. I would add that such purple patches also offer us, the listen- ers, the opportunity to reflect on the key that they obscure and defer.
While there is some correlation between the more conservative techniques and his earlier works and between the more progressive techniques and his later works, the correlations are not strict. S1 is in the wrong mode; S2 or the closing theme then restores the right mode. S1 is in the wrong key; S2 then restores the right key. This is more progressive than no. S1 is in the wrong key; S1 is then repeated in the right key. S is in the wrong key in the exposition; it is not corrected in the exposition but only in the recapitulation, immediately that is, without first transposing the wrong key down by a fifth. S is in the wrong key in the exposition; it is transposed down by a fifth in the recapitulation and then restored to the right key.
S is in the wrong key only in the recapitulation, not the exposition. It is then corrected. Of these techniques, I have already given examples of numbers 1, 2, and 5; in table 1, I offer additional examples of these and also examples of numbers 3, 5, and 6. In other words, perhaps Beethoven is less deviating from supposed late-eighteenth-century norms than relying on mid-eighteenth-century ones, both of which were on the table during his time. Yet it is doubtful that in the date of the op. Once the new tonal scheme had become standardized, the reversion to earlier practices inevitably appeared to comment on that new standard, laying it bare by deviating from it. S in the recapitulation features the same twofold incursion, now in the form of a subdominant over its dominant pedal.
Eventually the tonic minor is restored. String Quartet in S1 is in v, S2 in V. This section is similar to op. A Major, op. The recapitulation transposes this section to the minor tonic, then the major tonic. Yet, unlike op. Technique No. The recapitulation uses the same basic technique, but now S is initially in the subdominant before being restored to the tonic. A tonal excursion quickly follows, however. Leonore Overture no. Yet here the unusual tonal choice for S does not affect S in the recapitulation, which is immediately stated in C major.
If anything, the aberrant key choice is reflected in the tonal temperament of S itself. Via a striking reconstrual of a diminished seventh chord, the mediant in the exposition and tonic in the recapitulation no sooner establish themselves than modulate to their respective Neapolitans, eventually winding back home. The recapitulation Finale transposes S down by a fifth before correcting it to tonic. String Quartet in As with op. NB: the recapitulation, unlike those in op. Evidently, Beethoven is replacing the principle of fifth-transposition with that of symmetry: S in the exposition is a third below tonic, S in the recapitulation is a third above it.
In other words, Beethoven treats the secondary key as he would in a major-mode movement, transposing it down by a fifth. Yet doing so in a minor-mode movement produces the wrong key. The key is corrected to F major only in the coda—that is, only in post-sonata space. Longyear and Kate R. Covington cite this and the first movement as early examples of the three-key exposition. I speculate that the sonata-form expositions in which he used a major mediant without subsequent dominant, such as those of op.
This exposition pattern typically featured within S space a mediant-type key followed by the dominant. However, I am not prepared to argue that point with any historical rigor here. Put simply: dates matter. A theory such as mine that pivots on the dialogue between norms and deformations needs to demarcate the period in which those norms are applicable.
However, since one can rarely do so with absolute precision, where does one draw historical lines? For a piece to be about its key, it would indeed need to fall within a fairly circumscribed time period, neither before the standard sonata key scheme had been well established nor after it had become obsolete. Accordingly, most of my examples are confined to the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. That being said, there is of course no hard- and-fast line to be drawn. My approach is nothing more, nothing less than a heuristic.
No, because the normative mode of establishing a tonic around was no longer as operative by , by which point real transpositional sequences in expositions had become common. He did not expect Haydn to sound like anybody else; by the s his music was accepted on its own terms. We might, in fact, claim that the more Haydn was heard against general practice, the less he was understood.
Indeed, a technical procedure can be 52 See note Brahms, Piano Sonata in C Major, op. That Beethoven tended toward a set of related procedures in deforming sonata-form tonality does not take away from the fact that he did in fact deform them; it does not diminish how provocative those techniques probably were to early-nineteenth-century ears as historical accounts confirm and how provocative they may remain to our modern ears when we adopt a histor- ical sensibility.
It is to this sensibility, and a competing modern one, that I now turn. This is an important question to address since so many music theorists today valorize and even presuppose structural hearing. It would be a different story if the descending chromatic bass were harmonized as it is, say, in the theme of the 32 Variations in C Minor, WoO 80 ex. But such a reading would attenuate, or at mini- mum fail to capture, the sense of contingency A major exudes here, if only in retrospect some listeners might not know we had been in the wrong key until the right one arrives. A sensitive Schenkerian would no doubt recognize that the music continually revises her perceptions, but in her analysis she would have no choice but to record only her final, retrospective perception.
A graph cannot capture the equivocation by which the tonic is reached. After a plaintive gambit in G major, played by the piano alone, the orchestra responds with a sequential statement departing from a B-major chord that temporarily cancels out or replaces G. Over the next few measures, G is gradually regained via a descending-fifths sequence. The tonal unity here is axiomatic, not gradually and deliberately achieved. Cook demurs. My dialectical model, by contrast, is clearly integrationist, since its end result is synthesis. But, crucially, it is not integrationist in a Schenkerian sense, for whereas Schenkerians presuppose unity, in my model dialectical unity is arduously achieved. In the dialectical model, by contrast, C is a contingent, hard-won outcome rather than a presupposition and is the richer for it —C has reckoned with real alternatives, and things might have turned out differently.
But to listen historically is not to listen naively; it does not require a blank slate. As Robert Gjerdingen in par- ticular has shown, Classical composers and their audiences were equipped with a rich repository of musical schemata. These schemata are sources of coherence that operate fairly locally. Thus our perception of such pieces will inevi- tably be at least partially synoptic. This is not necessarily a problem, for it might be fruitful to hear such pieces both historically and structurally simultaneously, such that even as we hear a tonal chasm on one level, we hear a larger design on another.
Indeed, the two modes of hearing are not necessarily incompatible. Yet as Cook states, we need not emphasize what is already evident to us, we need not emphasize the synoptic certainty that is already part of our modern ethos, that conditions our hearing regard- less. Webster, his Schenkerian sympathies notwithstanding, makes a similar point with respect to Haydn. Only then will the two modes of hearing truly be in dialogue. One such strain is the German Idealist tradition, in which the notion of absolute music played a pivotal role.
Absolute music was variously thought to express the ineffable, the noumenal, and the infinite. Instru- mental music could do so largely because it was semantically indetermi- nate: it occupied a sphere separate from language and mimesis. That is, it spoke its own language of tones and was preoccupied with its own unique structural possibilities and procedures. What is more, such music referred to those procedures by deploying them in unconventional ways.
It speaks itself. A second relevant framework is Romantic irony. He posited a chasm between subjectivity and the concepts through which we organize sensory experience. Novels, in particular, drove a wedge between the form and content of representations, calling attention to the diegetic mechanisms that previously, more often than not, had been transparent to mimetic content. One thinks here of Laurence Sterne, who was influenced by the early German Romantic novelists. His Tristram Shandy perpetually sports mischievous digressions, including those in which Tristram addresses the reader directly, thus disturbing verisimilitude. Sterne deliberately renders his novel resistant to mimetic realism by foregrounding the very act of narrating.
Haydn, as Mark Evan Bonds has demonstrated, was in a sense the musical counterpart of Sterne: both used irony not solely or primarily as a localized trope but as a thoroughgoing means by which to dissolve aesthetic illusion. Beethoven went a step further than Haydn and Mozart in embed- ding irony more deeply in compositional structure. In so doing, Beethoven intimated a fraught relationship between subjec- tive content and outer expression. He revealed his principal theme to be scarcely compatible with some core characteristics of sonata form, in the process foregrounding the fact of formal mediation. Whenever this shattering takes place, the dramatic process. To the extent that, as I have claimed, this strategy heightens our consciousness and comprehension of such norms, those norms can no longer serve as a transparent medium of expression.
The medium is now something we must recognize in and of itself. And since irony was deeply impli- cated in the existential and ontological dilemmas of the late-eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it is no exaggeration to say, as Hans Keller did in my epigraph, that Beethoven was a philosopher—that he wrote about music in music and, by extension, wrote about much else besides. Romantic art reflects back on itself in order to reflect something not itself.
Beethoven dramatized this tech- nique in two senses: first, he used it after it had largely fallen out of fashion, thus affording it considerable dramatic impact e. For instance, for the secondary key of the Piano Sonatas Ops. These and similar cases result in the deferred arrival of the tonic in the secondary theme of the recapitulation. Consequently, when the tonic belatedly arrives, the listener is more cognizant of it.
In this way Beetho- ven brings the resolution of large-scale tonal dissonance to the fore. I suggest that such a tactic is metamusical—that Beethoven was in a sense writing music about music, about the relationship between a particular piece and the tonal and formal conventions it relies on and also problematizes. It con- cludes by briefly considering the extent to which these procedures can be squared with Schenkerian theory and its ideal of structural hearing. Related Papers. By James S. By Mark Richards. Back and Forth from Egmont By James Hepokoski.
By Benjamin Ayotte. Download pdf.And he Beethoven Dialectical Journal transposed digits Beethoven Dialectical Journal he was writing Beethoven Dialectical Journal date. Pearson, New York Reading Response Ghiberti. Beethoven's complex, Beethoven Dialectical Journal symphonies changed that Beethoven Dialectical Journal, proving that music alone could be an incredibly powerful and artistic experience.