✪✪✪ The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War
Some, including platoon leaders, testified that the orders, as they understood them, were to kill all VC and Performance Enhancing Drugs In Professional Sports Analysis Vietnamese combatants and Herodotus Historical Analysis including women The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War children, as well as all animalsto burn The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War village, and pollute the wells. The Rosewood Massacre was an attack on Psychopathological Factors predominantly African American town Recreational Drug Use Pros And Cons Rosewood, Florida, in by large groups of white aggressors. Most of the victims were women, children, infants, and elderly people. Westmoreland congratulated the unit on The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War "outstanding job". Both The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War stripped of Distinguished Service The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War which had been awarded for service in The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War.
Vietnam War - My Lai (Pinkville) Massacre
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The terrorists were part of a group known as Black September 5, , President Gerald R. Ford survives an attempt on his life in Sacramento, California. The assailant, a petite, red haired, freckle-faced young woman named Lynette Fromme, approached the president while he was walking near the California Capitol and raised a. Jesse and his older brother Franklin lost their father in , when the Reverend Robert James abandoned his Couric, who served as co-anchor of The Today Show from to , Pasternak was born in Russia in , and by the time of the Russian Revolution was a well-known At am, Medina radioed an order to cease fire, and 1st Platoon took a break, during which they ate lunch.
After the initial sweeps by 1st and 2nd Platoons, 3rd Platoon was dispatched to deal with any "remaining resistance". During this operation, between 60 and people, including women and children, were killed. Over the remaining day, both companies were involved in the further burning and destruction of dwellings, as well as continued mistreatment of Vietnamese detainees. While it was noted in the later Courts Martial proceedings that some soldiers of Charlie Company did not participate in any killings, it was also noted that they neither openly protested against them nor filed complaints later to their superiors. William Thomas Allison, a professor of Military History at Georgia Southern University, wrote, "By midmorning, members of Charlie Company had killed hundreds of civilians and raped or assaulted countless women and young girls.
They encountered no enemy fire and found no weapons in My Lai itself". By the time the killings stopped, Charlie Company had suffered one casualty - a soldier who had intentionally shot himself in the foot to avoid participating in the massacre—and just three enemy weapons were confiscated. Warrant Officer Hugh Thompson Jr. They landed their helicopter by a ditch, which they noted was full of bodies and in which they could discern movement by survivors. Thompson, shocked and confused, then spoke with 2LT Calley, who claimed to be "just following orders".
As the helicopter took off, Thompson saw Mitchell firing into the ditch. Thompson and his crew witnessed an unarmed woman being kicked and shot at point-blank range by Medina, who later claimed that he thought she had a hand grenade. Thompson landed, and told his crew that if the soldiers shot at the villagers while he was trying to get them out of the bunker, then they were to open fire on the soldiers. Thompson later testified that he spoke with a lieutenant identified as Stephen Brooks of 2nd Platoon and told him there were women and children in the bunker, and asked if the lieutenant would help get them out.
According to Thompson, "he [the lieutenant] said the only way to get them out was with a hand grenade". Thompson testified that he then told Brooks to "just hold your men right where they are, and I'll get the kids out. A crew member, Specialist 4 Glenn Andreotta , entered the ditch and returned with a bloodied but apparently unharmed four-year-old girl, who was then flown to safety. Upon returning to the LZ Dottie base in his OH, Thompson reported to his section leader, Captain Barry Lloyd, that the American infantry were no different from Nazis in their slaughter of innocent civilians:. They're rounding them up and herding them in ditches and then just shooting them.
Thompson then reported what he had seen to his company commander, Major Frederic W. Watke, using terms such as "murder" and "needless and unnecessary killings". Thompson's statements were confirmed by other helicopter pilots and air crew members. Glenn Andreotta was awarded his medal posthumously, as he was killed in Vietnam on 8 April In March , the helicopter crew's medals were replaced by the Soldier's Medal , the highest the U. Army can award for bravery not involving direct conflict with the enemy. The medal citations state they were "for heroism above and beyond the call of duty while saving the lives of at least 10 Vietnamese civilians during the unlawful massacre of non-combatants by American forces at My Lai".
Thompson initially refused to accept the medal when the U. Army wanted to award it quietly. He demanded it be done publicly and that his crew also be honored in the same way. After returning to base at about , Thompson reported the massacre to his superiors. Barker radioed his executive officer to find out from Medina what was happening on the ground. Medina then gave the cease-fire order to Charlie Company to "cut [the killing] out — knock it off".
Since Thompson made an official report of the civilian killings, he was interviewed by Colonel Oran Henderson, the commander of the 11th Infantry Brigade. General William C. Westmoreland , the head of MACV, also congratulated Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry for "outstanding action", saying that they had "dealt [the] enemy [a] heavy blow". Owing to the chaotic circumstances of the war and the U. Estimates vary from source to source, with and being the most commonly cited figures. The memorial at the site of the massacre lists names, with ages ranging from one to A later investigation by the U. Army arrived at a lower figure of deaths,  the official U. The official estimate by the local government remains Initial reports claimed " Viet Cong and 22 civilians" had been killed in the village during a "fierce fire fight".
Westmoreland congratulated the unit on the "outstanding job". As relayed at the time by Stars and Stripes magazine, "U. On 16 March , in the official press briefing known as the "Five O'Clock Follies" , a mimeographed release included this passage: "In an action today, Americal Division forces killed enemy near Quang Ngai City. Helicopter gunships and artillery missions supported the ground elements throughout the day. Henderson interviewed several soldiers involved in the incident, then issued a written report in late-April claiming that some 20 civilians were inadvertently killed during the operation. According to Henderson's report, the civilian casualties that occurred were accidental and mainly attributed to long-range artillery fire.
It would indeed be terrible to find it necessary to believe that an American soldier that harbors such racial intolerance and disregard for justice and human feeling is a prototype of all American national character; yet the frequency of such soldiers lends credulity to such beliefs. What has been outlined here I have seen not only in my own unit, but also in others we have worked with, and I fear it is universal. If this is indeed the case, it is a problem which cannot be overlooked, but can through a more firm implementation of the codes of MACV Military Assistance Command Vietnam and the Geneva Conventions, perhaps be eradicated. In his report, Powell wrote, "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between Americal Division soldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent.
So, in war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but they are still to be deplored. Defense Department investigated press coverage of alleged atrocities committed in South Vietnam. In August , the page report "Alleged Atrocities by U. Military Forces in South Vietnam" was completed. Independently of Glen, Specialist 5 Ronald L. Ridenhour , a former door gunner from the Aviation Section, Headquarters Company, 11th Infantry Brigade, sent a letter in March to thirty members of Congress imploring them to investigate the circumstances surrounding the "Pinkville" incident.
At one point, they hovered over a dead Vietnamese woman with a patch of the 11th Brigade on her body. Ridenhour himself had not been present when the massacre occurred, but his account was compiled from detailed conversations with soldiers of Charlie Company who had witnessed and, in some cases, participated in the killing. My Lai was first revealed to the American public on November 13, —almost two years after the incident—when freelance journalist Seymour Hersh published a story through the Dispatch News Service. The story threatened to undermine the U.
Inside the White House, officials privately discussed how to contain the scandal. On November 21, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger emphasised that the White House needed to develop a "game plan", to establish a "press policy", and maintain a "unified line" in its public response to the incident. The White House established a "My Lai Task Force" whose mission was to "figure out how best to control the problem", to make sure that administration officials "all don't go in different directions" when discussing the incident, and to "engage in dirty tricks".
These included discrediting key witnesses and questioning Hersh's motives for releasing the story. What soon followed was a public relations offensive by the administration designed to shape how My Lai would be portrayed in the press and understood among the American public. As members of Congress called for an inquiry and news correspondents abroad expressed their horror at the massacre, the General Counsel of the Army Robert Jordan was tasked with speaking to the press. He refused to confirm allegations against Calley.
Noting the significance of the fact that the statement was given at all, Bill Downs of ABC News said it amounted to the first public expression of concern by a "high defense official" that American troops "might have committed genocide". Peers was appointed by the Secretary of the Army and the Army Chief of Staff to conduct a thorough review of the My Lai incident, 16—19 March , and its investigation by the Army. The evidence indicates that only 3 or 4 were confirmed as Viet Cong although there were undoubtedly several unarmed VC men, women, and children among them and many more active supporters and sympathizers.
One man from the company was reported as wounded from the accidental discharge of his weapon. Critics of the Peers Report pointed out that it sought to place the real blame on four officers who were already dead, foremost among them the commander of Task Force Barker, LTC Frank Barker, who was killed in a mid-air collision on 13 June In May , a sergeant who participated in Operation Speedy Express wrote a confidential letter to then Army Chief of Staff Westmoreland describing civilian killings he said were on the scale of the massacre occurring as "a My Lai each month for over a year" during — Two other letters to this effect from enlisted soldiers to military leaders in , all signed "Concerned Sergeant", were uncovered within declassified National Archive documents.
The letters describe common occurrences of civilian killings during population pacification operations. Army policy also stressed very high body counts and this resulted in dead civilians being marked down as combatants. Alluding to indiscriminate killings described as unavoidable, the commander of the 9th Infantry Division, then Major General Julian Ewell , in September , submitted a confidential report to Westmoreland and other generals describing the countryside in some areas of Vietnam as resembling the battlefields of Verdun. In July , the Office of Provost Marshal General of the Army began to examine the evidence collected by the Peers inquiry regarding possible criminal charges.
Eventually, Calley was charged with several counts of premeditated murder in September , and 25 other officers and enlisted men were later charged with related crimes. On 17 November , a court-martial in the United States charged 14 officers, including Major General Koster, the Americal Division's commanding officer, with suppressing information related to the incident. Most of the charges were later dropped. During the four-month-long trial, Calley consistently claimed that he was following orders from his commanding officer, Captain Medina. Despite that, he was convicted and sentenced to life in prison on 29 March , after being found guilty of premeditated murder of not fewer than twenty people.
Two days later, President Richard Nixon made the controversial decision to have Calley released from armed custody at Fort Benning , Georgia, and put under house arrest pending appeal of his sentence. Court of Military Appeals in In August , Calley's sentence was reduced by the Convening Authority from life to twenty years. Calley would eventually serve three and one-half years under house arrest at Fort Benning including three months in a disciplinary barracks in Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. In a separate trial, Medina denied giving the orders that led to the massacre, and was acquitted of all charges, effectively negating the prosecution's theory of " command responsibility ", now referred to as the "Medina standard". Several months after his acquittal, however, Medina admitted he had suppressed evidence and had lied to Henderson about the number of civilian deaths.
Captain Kotouc, an intelligence officer from 11th Brigade, was also court-martialed and found not guilty. Koster was demoted to brigadier general and lost his position as the Superintendent of West Point. His deputy, Brigadier General Young, received a letter of censure. Both were stripped of Distinguished Service Medals which had been awarded for service in Vietnam. Of the 26 men initially charged, Calley was the only one convicted. Howard Callaway , Secretary of the Army, was quoted in The New York Times in as stating that Calley's sentence was reduced because Calley honestly believed that what he did was a part of his orders—a rationale that contradicts the standards set at Nuremberg and Tokyo, where following orders was not a defense for committing war crimes.
Army from January to August for crimes against civilians in Vietnam. The destruction was officially attributed to "Viet Cong terrorists". Some of them expressed regrets without acknowledging any personal guilt, as, for example, Ernest Medina, who said, "I have regrets for it, but I have no guilt over it because I didn't cause it. That's not what the military, particularly the United States Army, is trained for. There is no such thing. Not in the military. If I go into a combat situation and I tell them, 'No, I'm not going. I'm not going to do that. I'm not going to follow that order', well, they'd put me up against the wall and shoot me.
American veterans Hugh Thompson and Lawrence Colburn, who were shielding civilians during the massacre, addressed the crowd. Among the listeners was Phan Thi Nhanh, a year-old girl at the time of the massacre. She was saved by Thompson and vividly remembered that tragic day, "We don't say we forget. We just try not to think about the past, but in our hearts we keep a place to think about that". More than a thousand people turned out on 16 March , forty years after the massacre. They threw me into a ditch full of dead bodies. I was covered with blood and brains. On 19 August , Calley made his first public apology for the massacre in a speech to the Kiwanis club of Greater Columbus, Georgia :  . I am very sorry If you are asking why I did not stand up to them when I was given the orders, I will have to say that I was a 2nd lieutenant getting orders from my commander and I followed them—foolishly, I guess.
Before being shipped to South Vietnam, all of Charlie Company's soldiers went through an advanced infantry training and basic unit training at Pohakuloa Training Area in Hawaii. The Stars and Stripes published a laudatory piece, "U. On 12 April , the Trident wrote that, "The most punishing operations undertaken by the brigade in Operation Muscatine's area involved three separate raids into the village and vicinity of My Lai, which cost the VC killed". Vietnam was an atrocity from the get-go There were hundreds of My Lais. You got your card punched by the numbers of bodies you counted. A military commission, that was issued as a result of the massacre, discovered widespread failures of leadership, discipline and moral among the Army's fighting units.
The incident also changed the way the military issued operational orders during military engagements and exposed significant flaws to the public. Charlotte Karol. Americans protesting the Vietnam War; one reason why the My Lai cover up was unsuccessful. What were the reactions of Americans after the truth about the massacre was revealed? Upon the discovery of the true events of the My Lai massacre, America responded with outrage. Americans questioned the conduct of American soldiers in Vietnam after learning about how disorganized the event was. The strong loyalty that Americans had once had for their Armed Forces was hurt by the new image of the military that was created. The unfolding of the incident was confirmation for Americans that the war was pointless.
Some Americans felt less badly about the event and defended men like William Calley during their trials. Supporters of the war saw the massacre as some that happens in all ways and saw Calley as a scapegoat for others higher up in military rank. Calley across the nation. Army Draft board personnel resigned in groups in several cities.World The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War I. New York: Norton, Demands to withdraw from Vietnam continued to grow. The Vietnam War started in the s, according to most historians, though The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War conflict in Southeast Asia had its roots in the French colonial period Consumer trust e commerce the s. The evidence indicates that only 3 or 4 were confirmed as Viet Cong although there were undoubtedly several The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War VC men, women, and children among them and The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War more active supporters and sympathizers. William Why is reaction time important in football, investigated the massacre and produced The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War list of 30 persons The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War knew of the atrocity, but only The My Lai Massacre During The Vietnam War, Panama City Temperature Analysis Calley and his company commander, Captain Ernest Medina, were charged with crimes.