⒈ Herbert Hoover Lunches In The 1920s

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Herbert Hoover Lunches In The 1920s



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The Roaring 20's: Crash Course US History #32

Hinter dieser Einigkeit hatten sich jedoch die zwischen Demokraten und Republikanern sowie innerhalb der Demokratischen Partei bestehenden tiefen politischen Differenzen nur verborgen. Diese brachen wieder auf, als sich die konjunkturelle Situation wieder aufhellte. Butler Roosevelt informierte, stritt du Pont ab, etwas damit zu tun zu haben. Dagegen spricht nach David M. Kennedy allerdings, dass die meisten Projekte bereits lange vor den Erfolgen der Populisten geplant und vorbereitet worden waren. Das Fehlen einer Sozialversicherung machte die Vereinigten Staaten unter den modernen Industriestaaten zu einem Ausnahmefall. Gewerkschaften gab es bereits lange vor Gelegentlich wurde auch die Polizei gegen Streikende eingesetzt bzw.

Daraufhin riefen die lokalen Gewerkschaften einen Generalstreik aus, an dem sich Vor allem Robert F. Arbeiter durften seitdem nicht mehr wegen einer Gewerkschaftsmitgliedschaft entlassen werden. Die Zahl der gewerkschaftlich organisierten Arbeiter verdoppelte sich von bis auf 7 Millionen. Weiterhin wurde Kinderarbeit von Kindern unter 16 Jahren verboten. Im Ergebnis betrug das Haushaltsdefizit des Bundeshaushalts von bis ca. David M. Kennedy bezweifelt das, eine solche Entwicklung lasse sich an der konkreten Politik kaum festmachen. Zum Beispiel dominierten einige wenige Holdinggesellschaften den gesamten Energiemarkt. Sie wurde aber von den Republikanern sowie von einigen demokratischen Abgeordneten als Eingriff in die Gewaltenteilung scharf kritisiert.

William Rehnquist fasste den Verfassungswandel wie folgt zusammen:. Roosevelts Bestreben ging seitdem dahin, den New Deal zu verstetigen. Seitdem wird Liberalismus in den Vereinigten Staaten weniger mit der Verteidigung unternehmerischer Freiheit, als mit einer arbeitnehmerfreundlichen Politik assoziiert. Dies veranlasste manche Kritiker dazu auch den New Deal dieser Tendenz zuzuordnen.

There is a tiny splinter group of course, that believes you can do these things … Their number is negligible and they are stupid. Kennedy und Lyndon B. Auch wurde Nachfragepolitik offiziell abgelehnt und reine Angebotspolitik als Alternative propagiert. Die Fragen, was der New Deal eigentlich gewesen ist und wie erfolgreich er war, sind bis heute umstritten. Die wirtschaftliche Erholung setzte ein und mit Ausnahme eines scharfen Einbruchs im Jahr blieb das Wirtschaftswachstum anhaltend hoch. Roosevelt verfolgte zwischen und das Ziel einer geringen Neuverschuldung.

Die Fiskalpolitik der Regierung schonte daher den Staatshaushalt, trug andererseits aber nicht viel zur Erholung bei. Zwischen der Abkehr vom Goldstandard und dem Beginn der Erholung besteht nach fast einhelliger Ansicht ein klarer zeitlicher und inhaltlicher Zusammenhang. Bradford DeLong , Lawrence Summers und Christina Romer war die wirtschaftliche Erholung von der Wirtschaftskrise bereits vor also vor dem starken Anstieg der Kriegsausgaben in den Vereinigten Staaten im Wesentlichen abgeschlossen. Sie gehen davon aus, dass vor allem die Geldpolitik des New Deal dazu beitrug.

Danach sei das Problem eher eine strukturelle Arbeitslosigkeit. Eggertsson und Christina Romer. Sie sehen auch einen psychologischen Effekt des New Deal als wesentliche Voraussetzung. Der Sinn der Wirtschaftsreformen bestand darin, die Marktwirtschaft zu retten, indem die schlimmsten Exzesse unterbunden und eine stabilere Wirtschaftsordnung geschaffen wurden.

Die Bankreform des New Deal wurde seit den er Jahren gelockert. Die Schwarzen und andere Minderheiten erlangten aber auch durch den New Deal keine Gleichberechtigung. Er unternahm daher keinen Versuch, die Gleichberechtigung gesetzlich zu erzwingen. Arthur M. Schlesinger und William E. Leuchtenburgs Franklin D. Barton J. Der Historiker David M. Some of the nation's wealthiest men owned sugar plantations, which often had their own sugar mills. In New England, subsistence agriculture gave way after to production to provide food supplies for the rapidly growing industrial towns and cities.

New specialty export crops were introduced such as tobacco and cranberries. The British had attempted to restrict westward expansion with the ineffective Proclamation Line of , abolished after the Revolutionary War. The first major movement west of the Appalachian mountains began in Pennsylvania, Virginia and North Carolina as soon as the was won in Pioneers housed themselves in a rough lean-to or at most a one-room log cabin.

The main food supply at first came from hunting deer, turkeys, and other abundant small game. Clad in typical frontier garb, leather breeches, moccasins, fur cap, and hunting shirt, and girded by a belt from which hung a hunting knife and a shot pouch — all homemade — the pioneer presented a unique appearance. In a short time he opened in the woods a patch, or clearing, on which he grew corn, wheat, flax, tobacco and other products, even fruit. In a few years the pioneer added hogs, sheep and cattle, and perhaps acquired a horse.

Homespun clothing replaced the animal skins. The more restless pioneers grew dissatisfied with over civilized life, and uprooted themselves again to move 50 or hundred miles 80 or km further west. In , American pioneers to the Northwest Territory established Marietta, Ohio as the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory. Louis, Missouri was the largest town on the frontier, the gateway for travel westward, and a principal trading center for Mississippi River traffic and inland commerce. There was wide agreement on the need to settle the new territories quickly, but the debate polarized over the price the government should charge. The conservatives and Whigs, typified by president John Quincy Adams , wanted a moderated pace that charged the newcomers enough to pay the costs of the federal government.

The Democrats, however, tolerated a wild scramble for land at very low prices. The final resolution came in the Homestead Law of , with a moderated pace that gave settlers acres free after they worked on it for five years. From the s to the s, pioneers moved into the new lands that stretched from Kentucky to Alabama to Texas. Most were farmers who moved in family groups. Hacker shows how wasteful the first generation of pioneers was; they were too ignorant to cultivate the land properly and when the natural fertility of virgin land was used up, they sold out and moved west to try again.

Hacker describes that in Kentucky about Farms were for sale with from ten to fifty acres cleared, possessing log houses, peach and sometimes apple orchards, inclosed in fences, and having plenty of standing timber for fuel. The land was sown in wheat and corn, which were the staples, while hemp [for making rope] was being cultivated in increasing quantities in the fertile river bottoms. Yet, on the whole, it was an agricultural society without skill or resources. It committed all those sins which characterize a wasteful and ignorant husbandry.

Grass seed was not sown for hay and as a result the farm animals had to forage for themselves in the forests; the fields were not permitted to lie in pasturage; a single crop was planted in the soil until the land was exhausted; the manure was not returned to the fields; only a small part of the farm was brought under cultivation, the rest being permitted to stand in timber. Instruments of cultivation were rude and clumsy and only too few, many of them being made on the farm.

It is plain why the American frontier settler was on the move continually. It was, not his fear of a too close contact with the comforts and restraints of a civilized society that stirred him into a ceaseless activity, nor merely the chance of selling out at a profit to the coming wave of settlers; it was his wasting land that drove him on. Hunger was the goad. The pioneer farmer's ignorance, his inadequate facilities for cultivation, his limited means, of transport necessitated his frequent changes of scene. He could succeed only with virgin soil. Hacker adds that the second wave of settlers reclaimed the land, repaired the damage, and practiced a more sustainable agriculture.

A dramatic expansion in farming took place from to The number of people living on farms grew from about 10 million in to 22 million in to 31 million in The federal government issued acre 65 ha tracts for very cheap costs to about , families who settled new land under the Homestead Act of Even larger numbers purchased lands at very low interest from the new railroads, which were trying to create markets. The railroads advertised heavily in Europe and brought over, at low fares, hundreds of thousands of farmers from Germany, Scandinavia, and Britain. The Dominion Lands Act of served a similar function for establishing homesteads on the prairies in Canada.

The first years of the 20th century were prosperous for all American farmers. The years — became a statistical benchmark, called "parity", that organized farm groups wanted the government to use as a benchmark for the level of prices and profits they felt they deserved. Early settlers discovered that the Great Plains were not the "Great American Desert," but they also found that the very harsh climate—with tornadoes, blizzards, drought, hail, floods, and grasshoppers [23] —made for a high risk of ruined crops. Many early settlers were financially ruined, especially in the early s, and either protested through the Populist movement, or went back east. In the 20th century, crop insurance, new conservation techniques, and large-scale federal aid all lowered the risk.

Immigrants, especially Germans, and their children comprised the largest element of settlers after ; they were attracted by the good soil, low-priced lands from the railroad companies. The railroads offered attractive Family packages. They brought in European families, with their tools, directly to the new farm, which was purchased on easy credit terms. The railroad needed settlers as much as the settlers needed farmland. Even cheaper land was available through homesteading, although it was usually not as well located as railroad land. The problem of blowing dust resulted from too little rainfall for growing enough wheat to keep the topsoil from blowing away. In the s, techniques and technologies of soil conservation, most of which had been available but ignored before the Dust Bowl conditions began, were promoted by the Soil Conservation Service SCS of the US Department of Agriculture, so that, with cooperation from the weather, soil condition was much improved by On the Great Plains, very few single men attempted to operate a farm or ranch; farmers clearly understood the need for a hard-working wife, and numerous children, to handle the many chores, including child-rearing, feeding and clothing the family, managing the housework, feeding the hired hands, and, especially after the s, handling the paperwork and financial details.

After a generation or so, women increasingly left the fields, thus redefining their roles within the family. New conveniences such as sewing and washing machines encouraged women to turn to domestic roles. The scientific housekeeping movement, promoted across the land by the media and government extension agents, as well as county fairs which featured achievements in home cookery and canning, advice columns for women in the farm papers, and home economics courses in the schools. Although the eastern image of farm life on the prairies emphasizes the isolation of the lonely farmer and farm life, rural folk created a rich social life for themselves.

They often sponsored activities that combined work, food, and entertainment such as barn raisings , corn huskings, quilting bees, [29] Grange meeting, church activities, and school functions. The womenfolk organized shared meals and potluck events, as well as extended visits between families. The male role is largely ignored to this day. Much of the Great Plains became open range , hosting cattle ranching operations on public land without charge. In the spring and fall, ranchers held roundups where their cowboys branded new calves, treated animals and sorted the cattle for sale.

Such ranching began in Texas and gradually moved northward. Cowboys drove Texas cattle north to railroad lines in the cities of Dodge City, Kansas and Ogallala, Nebraska ; from there, cattle were shipped eastward. British investors financed many great ranches of the era. Overstocking of the range and the terrible Winter of —87 resulted in a disaster, with many cattle starved and frozen to death. From then on, ranchers generally raised feed to ensure they could keep their cattle alive over winter. When there was too little rain for row crop farming, but enough grass for grazing, cattle ranching became dominant.

Before the railroads arrived in Texas the s cattle drives took large herds from Texas to the railheads in Kansas. A few thousand Indians resisted, notably the Sioux , who were reluctant to settle on reservations. However, most Indians themselves became ranch hands and cowboys. Where it was too dry for wheat, the settlers turned to cattle ranching. Agriculture in the South was oriented toward large-scale plantations that produced cotton for export, as well as other export products such as tobacco and sugar. During the Civil War, the Union blockade shut down 95 percent of the export business. Some cotton got out through blockade runners, and in conquered areas much was bought by northern speculators for shipment to Europe.

The great majority of white farmers worked on small subsistence farms, that supplied the needs of the family and the local market. Sharecropping became widespread in the South as a response to economic upheaval caused by the end of slavery during and after Reconstruction. The landowner provided land, housing, tools and seed, and perhaps a mule, and a local merchant provided food and supplies on credit. At harvest time the sharecropper received a share of the crop from one-third to one-half, with the landowner taking the rest. The cropper used his share to pay off his debt to the merchant. The system started with blacks when large plantations were subdivided. By the s, white farmers also became sharecroppers.

The system was distinct from that of the tenant farmer, who rented the land, provided his own tools and mule, and received half the crop. Landowners provided more supervision to sharecroppers, and less or none to tenant farmers. Poverty was inevitable, because world cotton prices were low. Sawers shows how southern farmers made the mule their preferred draft animal in the South during the s—s, primarily because it fit better with the region's geography. Mules better withstood the heat of summer, and their smaller size and hooves were well suited for such crops as cotton, tobacco, and sugar. The character of soils and climate in the lower South hindered the creation of pastures, so the mule breeding industry was concentrated in the border states of Missouri, Kentucky, and Tennessee.

Transportation costs combined with topography to influence the prices of mules and horses, which in turn affected patterns of mule use. The economic and production advantages associated with mules made their use a progressive step for Southern agriculture that endured until the mechanization brought by tractors. The Grange was an organization founded in for farmers and their wives that was strongest in the Northeast, and which promoted the modernization not only of farming practices but also of family and community life. It is still in operation. Membership soared from , to , as many of the state and local granges adopted non-partisan political resolutions, especially regarding the regulation of railroad transportation costs.

The organization was unusual in that it allowed women and teens as equal members. Rapid growth infused the national organization with money from dues, and many local granges established consumer cooperatives , initially supplied by the Chicago wholesaler Aaron Montgomery Ward. Poor fiscal management, combined with organizational difficulties resulting from rapid growth, led to a massive decline in membership. By around the start of the 20th century, the Grange rebounded and membership stabilized. In the mids, state Granges in the Midwest were successful in passing state laws that regulated the rates they could be charged by railroads and grain warehouses. The peak of their political power was marked by their success in Munn v. Illinois , which held that the grain warehouses were a "private utility in the public interest ," and therefore could be regulated by public law see references below, "The Granger Movement".

During the Progressive Era s—s , political parties took up Grange causes. Consequently, local Granges focused more on community service, although the State and National Granges remain a political force. The rapid expansion of the farms coupled with the diffusion of trucks and Model T cars, and the tractor, allowed the agricultural market to expand to an unprecedented size. During World War I prices shot up and farmers borrowed heavily to buy out their neighbors and expand their holdings. This gave them very high debts that made them vulnerable to the downturn in farm prices in Throughout the s and down to low prices and high debt were major problems for farmers in all regions. Beginning with the US National War Garden Commission, the government encouraged Victory gardens , agricultural plantings in private yards and public parks for personal use and for the war effort.

As the song hints, many did not remain "down on the farm"; there was a great migration of youth from farms to nearby towns and smaller cities. The average distance moved was only 10 miles 16 km. Few went to the cities over , However, agriculture became increasingly mechanized with widespread use of the tractor , other heavy equipment, and superior techniques disseminated through County Agents , who were employed by state agricultural colleges and funded by the Federal government.

The early s saw a rapid expansion in the American agricultural economy largely due to new technologies and especially mechanization. Competition from Europe and Russia had disappeared due to the war and American agricultural goods were being shipped around the world. The new technologies, such as the combine harvester , meant that the most efficient farms were larger in size and, gradually, the small family farm that had long been the model were replaced by larger and more business-oriented firms.

Despite this increase in farm size and capital intensity, the great majority of agricultural production continued to be undertaken by family-owned enterprises. World War I had created an atmosphere of high prices for agricultural products as European nations demand for exports surged. Farmers had enjoyed a period of prosperity as U. When the war ended, supply increased rapidly as Europe's agricultural market rebounded. Overproduction led to plummeting prices which led to stagnant market conditions and living standards for farmers in the s.

Worse, hundreds of thousands of farmers had taken out mortgages and loans to buy out their neighbors' property, and now are unable to meet the financial burden. The cause was the collapse of land prices after the wartime bubble when farmers used high prices to buy up neighboring farms at high prices, saddling them with heavy debts. Farmers, however, blamed the decline of foreign markets, and the effects of the protective tariff. Farmers demanded relief as the agricultural depression grew steadily worse in the middle s, while the rest of the economy flourished. It was passed but vetoed by President Coolidge.

Jardine to modernize farming, by bringing in more electricity, more efficient equipment, better seeds and breeds, more rural education, and better business practices. Hoover advocated the creation of a Federal Farm Board which was dedicated to restriction of crop production to domestic demand, behind a tariff wall, and maintained that the farmer's ailments were due to defective distribution. In , the Hoover plan was adopted. President Franklin D. Roosevelt , a liberal Democrat, was keenly interested in farm issues and believed that true prosperity would not return until farming was prosperous. The main New Deal strategy was to reduce the supply of commodities, thereby raising the prices a little to the consumer, and a great deal to the farmer.

Marginal farmers produce too little to be helped by the strategy; specialized relief programs were developed for them. Prosperity largely returned to the farm by Roosevelt's "First Hundred Days" produced the Farm Security Act to raise farm incomes by raising the prices farmers received, which was achieved by reducing total farm output. The act reflected the demands of leaders of major farm organizations, especially the Farm Bureau , and reflected debates among Roosevelt's farm advisers such as Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace , M. Wilson, [58] Rexford Tugwell , and George Peek. The aim of the AAA was to raise prices for commodities through artificial scarcity.

The AAA used a system of "domestic allotments", setting total output of corn, cotton, dairy products, hogs, rice, tobacco, and wheat. The farmers themselves had a voice in the process of using government to benefit their incomes. The AAA paid land owners subsidies for leaving some of their land idle with funds provided by a new tax on food processing. The goal was to force up farm prices to the point of "parity", an index based on — prices. To meet goals, 10 million acres 40, km 2 of growing cotton was plowed up, bountiful crops were left to rot, and six million piglets were killed and discarded. Farm incomes increased significantly in the first three years of the New Deal, as prices for commodities rose.

Food prices remained well below levels. The AAA established a long-lasting federal role in the planning of the entire agricultural sector of the economy, and was the first program on such a scale on behalf of the troubled agricultural economy. The original AAA did not provide for any sharecroppers or tenants or farm laborers who might become unemployed, but there were other New Deal programs especially for them, such as the Farm Security Administration. In , the Supreme Court declared the AAA to be unconstitutional for technical reasons; it was replaced by a similar program that did win Court approval.

Instead of paying farmers for letting fields lie barren, the new program instead subsidized them for planting soil enriching crops such as alfalfa that would not be sold on the market. Federal regulation of agricultural production has been modified many times since then, but together with large subsidies the basic philosophy of subsidizing farmers is still in effect in Many rural people lived in severe poverty, especially in the South. In , the Administration launched the Tennessee Valley Authority , a project involving dam construction planning on an unprecedented scale in order to curb flooding, generate electricity, and modernize the very poor farms in the Tennessee Valley region of the Southern United States. For the first time, there was a national program to help migrant and marginal farmers, through programs such as the Resettlement Administration and the Farm Security Administration.

Their plight gained national attention through the novel and film The Grapes of Wrath. The New Deal thought there were too many farmers, and resisted demands of the poor for loans to buy farms. Agriculture was very prosperous during World War II, even as rationing and price controls limited the availability of meat and other foods in order to guarantee its availability to the American And Allied armed forces. During World War II, farmers were not drafted, but surplus labor, especially in the southern cotton fields, voluntarily relocated to war jobs in the cities.

The New Deal era farm programs were continued into the s and s, with the goal of supporting the prices received by farmers. Typical programs involved farm loans, commodity subsidies, and price supports. So the well-organized Farm Bureau and other lobbyists, worked in the s to appeal to urban Congressman through food stamp programs for the poor. By , the food stamp program was the largest component of the farm bill. In , the Tea Party movement brought in many Republicans committed to cutting all federal subsidies, including those agriculture.

Meanwhile, urban Democrats strongly opposed reductions, pointing to the severe hardships caused by the —10 economic recession. The Agricultural Act of saw many rural Republican Congressman voting against the program; it passed with bipartisan support. For example, the entire Kansas Republican delegation in the House of Representatives voted against the bill, despite strong support received from Kansas agricultural organizations.

Ammonia from plants built during World War II to make explosives became available for making fertilizers, leading to a permanent decline in real fertilizer prices and expanded use. The horsepower of farm machinery underwent a large expansion. The machine could do the work of 50 men picking by hand. The great majority of unskilled farm laborers move to urban areas. Research on plant breeding produced varieties of grain crops that could produce high yields with heavy fertilizer input. This resulted in the Green revolution , beginning in the s. Wheat and soybean yields also rose significantly. Others switched to part-time operation, supported by off-farm employment. There was a push for unionization of the farm labor force in the s, with Cesar Chavez — , mobilizing California workers into the United Farm Workers organization.

In , grain farmers started taking "an extreme step, one not widely seen since the s" by breaching lease contracts with their landowners, reducing the amount of land they sow and risking long legal battles with landlords.

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